|Coordinates:||31.3157 N 35.3539 E|
|No:||488 (list of all attractions)|
|Category:||Cities and towns, Ancient cities and towns, Abandoned cities and towns, City walls|
|Values:||Visual, Archaeology, Architecture, History|
|Address:||Asia, Israel, South, several kilometres south-west from the south-western end of the Dead Sea, approximately 20 km east from Arad|
|Name in Hebrew:||מצדה|
|UNESCO World Heritage status:||"Masada", 2001, No.1040|
|Founded:||the 1st century BC|
|Flourished:||35 BC - 73 AD|
Best known monument of the Jewish resistance against foreign occupation is Masada - an impressive fortress not far from the Dead Sea. According to ancient writings 960 Jews killed themselves here, when Romans managed to take this fortress in 73 AD.
Rock in desert
Word "Masada" in Hebrew means fortress - and it really looks like it. This rock plateau is located in a deserted place (Judaean Desert) some kilometres from the Dead Sea. All around it there are deserted lands, almost no people live nearby.
Cliff is well protected by natural precipices around it. On the east edge cliffs and steeps are up to 400 m high but on the west - some 90 m high. Top of the plateau is flat, it is some 550 by 270 m large.
There is little known about the history of Masada before the 1st century BC. There have been found remnants of a settlement from the 4th millenium BC in a cave near the base of mountain. First known large fortifications on the top of plateau were built by the king of Judea Alexander Jannaeus in the early 1st century BC.
Herod the Great
In the power struggle after the death of Alexander Jannaeus a controversial figure - Herod the Great - rose to the power. This Jewish king subdued to the Romans and Judea de facto became a part of Roman Empire.
Herod was in Masada since 40 BC and turned it into major fortification - mainly to protect himself from Jewish revolts and possible foreign incursion. Nevertheless Masada in Herod's time was not just a fortress - it was a complex of luxurious buildings, a retreat of tyrrant from his own nation similar to King Kasyapa's Sigiriya in Sri Lanka.
One of Herod's first works after coming to power was construction of water supply system, palace and fortifications in Masada. This so called Western Palace was built soon after 35 BC, when three smaller palaces and other buildings were constructed as well. In 25 BC Herod started second phase of large scale construction in Masada, when Western Palace was extended and Northern Palace was built. Northern Palace was especially ambitious structure built on the northern ledge of fortress with two levels built below the end of the cliff. This enormous structure included also a bathhouse in Roman style.
Third wave of construction activity came at 15 BC, when 1,300 m long and 4 m tall fortification wall with some 30 towers was built around the whole ledge of fortress. Only the steep precipice at Northern Palace was not reinforced. This enormous fortification was a double walled structure with casemates inside.
Sicarii and Siege of Masada
Great events took place in Masada some decades later: in 66 - 73 AD. These events have been described by Jewish Roman historian Titus Flavius Josephus in "The Jewish War". There is no similar alternative work to this great story of antiquity - thus historians had to rely on the view point of Josephus, although we can not be sure if his interpretation was correct.
Thus, according to Josephus the story is the following:
In the 66 AD Masada was captured by a militant group of Jews named Sicarii (one branch of Zealots), led by Menahem. According to Josephus this was not a peaceful group at all - they were making raids to nearby settlements and once in the nearby Ein Gedi they killed some 700 women and children.
Sicarii made further fortifications in Masada, they built also residential buildings, synagogue, mikwe (place for ritual baths), cave rooms. These people were not rich and Herod's luxurious palaces were turned into dwellings of poor families.
Romans decided to put an end to this and organised a military expedition to Masada - the last outpost of Zealots (Jerusalem fell in 70 AD). Roman legion surrounded the mountain in 72 AD and built their own fortifications. Jewish prisoners of war were put at work to build a ramp towards the fortress and the surrounded Sicarii did not attack them. Finally Romans managed to breach the fortification wall in the spring of 73 AD. They decided to enter the fortification in the next day.
According to Josephus, after the night, when Romans entered the fortified plateau, Sicarii (led by Eleazar ben Ja’ir) set all the buildings in fortress ablaze and remaining 960 people, including women and children killed themselves. At first men killed their children and women and then ten men were designated who killed the other men. And finally: one man killed the remaining nine and himself. Only two women and five children hid in a cave and survived to tell the story.
Lately several archaeologists have put in doubt the report of Josephus, especially regarding the mass suicide.
After the Roman siege the fort was not inhabited for several centuries, powerful earthquakes destroyed many structures on the mountain.
Some centuries later the remote mountain with its spooky ruins was inhabited by a group of Christian monks who built a Byzantine church in the 5th or 6th century. Church had fine mosaic floor but today only a small fragment has survived. Site was inhabited also in the times of Crusades but afterwards it was abandoned.
Solitude far away from other settlements and desert environment helped to save the remaining ruins in Masada.
Europeans discovered Masada for themselves in 1838, when Edward Robinson and Eli Smith noticed the impressive mountain from the nearby Ein Gedi.
Extensive excavations started here only in 1963-1965 and were led by Yigael Yadin who wrote a great book "Masada" afterwards. Here have been found fragments of scrolls with Biblical texts on them. In one of palaces were found remains of killed people, including children and also captured Roman soldiers.
Since then much has been done in Masada: numerous structures have been restored: Roman-style bathhouses built by Herod, synagogue, some houses of Jewish rebels, also frescoes (mainly - imitation of marble) in the two main Herod's palaces. The buildings in the Roman camp near Masada have also been restored.
Today Masada is a monument of major symbolic significance to Jews and much visited tourist attraction. Visitors enter the plateau with a cable car, but they can also ascend Snake Trail (300 m climb) or Roman Ramp.
See Masada on the map of Israel!
If there is a land on the crossroads of civilizations, then Israel is one. Here from Africa to the remaining world entered different species of humans, including us. Area of Israel was located between the first civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and Anatolia. Whole country is dotted with monuments of archaeology and history.
Category of ancient cities and towns in this site includes those settlements which have developed as urban areas at least 1500 years ago - around 500 AD. The oldest densely inhabited permanent settlements in the world could be Jericho in Palestine (densely built already at 9400 BC) and Çatalhöyük in Turkey (7500 BC).