Trinidad and Tobago

Main attractions

Tropical forest in Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago
Tropical forest in Trinidad / Jacob Haddon, / CC BY 2.0

Trinidad and Tobago is a Caribbean nation, but the nature here in many respects resembles the lush, rich nature of the nearby South America. This small island country is rich with interesting natural landmarks.

Highlights of Trinidad and Tobago are:

  • Pitch lake and mud volcanoes. The largest and most spectacular pitch lake of the world is on Trinidad island. Here, often in exotic jungle setting or near (and in!) the sea, are found also numerous active mud volcanoes.
  • Ecosystems, especially guacharo caves. Trinidad and Tobago are very rich with species and rather many local species of plants and animals are endemic - found only in small area. Very interesting are the comparatively small caves, where live numerous species of bats, rare and unique insects - and the exotic guacharo - highly unusual bird.

Natural landmarks

La Brea pitch lake, Trinidad and Tobago
La Brea pitch lake / Shriram Rajagopalan, / CC BY 2.0

Mud volcanoes and asphalt lake

  • Chatam offshore mud volcano - Siparia. Underwater mud volcano which occasionally rises above the water level with loud, spectacular eruptions and then is washed away again.
  • Devil's Woodyard - Princes Town. Active, spectacular mud volcano which permanently emits warm mud. Occasionally there are violent eruptions.
  • La Brea pitch lake - Siparia. Natural asphalt lake, the largest in the world. In some areas one can sink in the asphalt if he stands in one place long enough. Water on the surface of asphalt may become sulphurous. Contains unique ecosystem of microorganisms.
  • Lagon Bouffe - Rio Claro-Mayaro. One of the largest mud volcanoes in Trinidad, some 100 - 150 m wide area covered with water, with occasional vents of gas and mud in it.
  • Moruga Bouffe mud volcanoes - Princes Town. Some of the most spectacular mud volcanoes, located in primeval forest.
  • Palo Seco mud volcano (Anglais Point) - Siparia. Mud volcano near the sea. Mud flows towards the sea, forming a spectacular stream of mud through the primeval forest.
  • Piparo Mud Volcano - Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo and Princes Town. Group of active mud volcanoes. For most part it is dormant but occasionally emits gases and mud fountains.
In Gasparee Caves, Trinidad and Tobago
In Gasparee Caves / Shriram Rajagopalan, / CC BY 2.0


  • Aripo Main Cave - Tunapuna-Piarco. Biggest cave system on the island, 862 m long. Contains small tufa waterfall. Colonies of oil birds and bats. Six insect species have been first described in this cave.
  • Cumaca Caves (Oropouche Cavern) - Sangra Grande. Approximately 215 - 225 m long cave with a colony of some 500 oilbirds - guacharos (Steatornis caripensis). Endemic beetle and near endemic fly lives in the cave.
  • Dunston Cave (Dunstan's Cave, Guacharo Cave) - Tunapuna-Piarco. Not a cave, but narrow gorge with a colony of some 130 oilbirds - guacharos (Steatornis caripensis).
  • Gasparee Caves - Diego Martin. Show cave with beautiful speleothems, including flowstones and curtains. Contains deep blue lake.
  • Tamana Caves - Rio Claro-Mayaro. Bat caves with some 0.5 - 1.5 million bats, including vampire bats. Infested with histoplasmosis, a dreadful place - dark chamber filled with life.


  • Aripo Blue Basin Falls - Tunapuna-Piarco. Waterfall which falls over tufa terraces.
  • Maracas Falls - Tunapuna-Piarco. One of the tallest waterfalls in the country, main plunge is some 83 m tall.
  • Turure Falls - Sangra Grande. Unique group of falls over tufa formations.

Natural arches

  • London Bridge at Little Tobago - Tobago. Spectacular natural arch - island near Little Tobago island. It continues under the sea up to 12 m depth.
  • Paria Arch (Cathedral Rock) - Tobago. Spectacular natural arch in the beach.
Tobago Main Ridge Forest, Trinidad and Tobago
Tobago Main Ridge Forest / Nicolas Will, / CC BY-SA 2.0

Other natural landmarks

  • Guanapo Gorge - Tunapuna-Piarco. Spectacular, narrow chasm in primeval forest. This 400 m long chasm has up to 30 m tall cliffs in both sides. In some places it is only 1 m wide.
  • Moruga Silk Cotton Tree - Princes Town. Largest known tree in Trinidad. This Ceiba pentandra tree is more than 56 m tall and at the height of 1.7 m has circumference of 27.2 m. Circumference above the buttresses, at the height of 13 m, above the buttresses, is 10.3 m.
  • Tobago Main Ridge Forest - Tobago. Lush tropical forest, with several species of animals and plants which are found only here. The oldest protected forest in Americas, protected area established in 1776.

Man made landmarks

Tobago National Museum, Trinidad and Tobago
Tobago National Museum / Daisy, / CC BY-SA 3.0
  • Banwari Trace - Siparia. Possibly the oldest archaeological site in Caribbean, occupied in two periods: 5200 - 4100 BC and 4100 - 3500 BC.
  • National Museum and Art Gallery - Port of Spain City. Large museum in a beautiful building, established in 1892.
  • President's House - Port of Spain City. Ornate building, constructed in 1876.
  • The Red House - Port of Spain City. Ornate parliament house, built in Greek Revival style in the 19th century and rebuilt in 1907. Beautiful ceiling in the Legislative Council Chamber.

List of described attractions by regional corporations and municipalities

Trinidad and Tobago is divided into 14 regional corporations and municipality of Tobago:

Arima Borough
Chaguanas Borough
Diego Martin
Point Fortin Borough
Port of Spain City
Princes Town
Rio Claro-Mayaro
San Fernando City
Sangra Grande
San Juan-Laventille
ArrowAripo Main CaveCaves, Ecosystems

Map of Trinidad and Tobago

Featured: Aripo Main Cave

The largest and longest accessible cave system in Trinidad island is Aripo Main Cave.

This cave is teeming with life. The most exciting inhabitant of the cave is guacharo (Steatornis caripensis) - the only fruit eating nocturnal bird in the world.

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