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10 finds of unique blue gemstones

The blue amber from the Dominican Republic
The blue amber from the Dominican Republic / Vassil, / public domain

WorldBlue  In short

There are places on our planet where unusual, gorgeous blue gemstones can be found. Wondermondo proudly presents a list of 10 such finds around the world.

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WorldYellow The most popular and most valuable blue gemstones

The blue color of seawater and sky is extremely rare in natural stones. There are just a few kinds of stones that qualify as high-quality blue gems: evenly colored, hard, lucid, and, above all, with an incredibly clean, breathtaking blue color. This color is so rare that even hard minerals in blue color which are not transparent still can be more expensive than many translucent gemstones in other colors.

The unofficial king of blue gemstones is sapphire: a blue variety of corundum… although gorgeous corundum crystals in other colors (purple, orange, green) also are called sapphires. Naturally occurring, pure blue sapphires are very rare – in most cases, sapphires have a hue of some other color – green, violet, purple. Frequently the blue color of sapphires is “improved” by heating and other methods. It is considered that the world’s best sapphire was found for some decades in Kashmir. This mine is exhausted now and most of the mined sapphires are in private collections or lost.

Only in Nepal is found kyanite of such high gem quality
Only in Nepal is found kyanite of such high gem quality. / Didier Descouens, Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0

While sapphire has an established value that lasts for many centuries, many other blue gemstones are recent introductions or simply, less known. Thus, the unexpected find of tanzanite in the late 1960ies brought a new kind of blue gemstone to the market and good marketing was essential to make it popular. Some other blue gemstones (the traditional gemstones – faceted and transparent stones) of high value are occasional blue diamonds (there is no certain location where they can be found on a regular basis), benitoites, blue beryls (bluer varieties of aquamarine), zircons, kyanites, the near-unique paraiba tourmalines, blue sapphires, and the extremely rare blue garnets. Just a few of these stones have a deep, pure blue color but each of them has a gorgeous shade of blue.

But there is another kind of gemstone – massive stones which are not faceted. Such stones can be translucent but not transparent. Could be that the bluest of them all is lapis lazuli – a legendary stone which has been mined for millennia in Northern Afghanistan. There are some more extremely valuable blue stones: turquoise (high-quality stone is extremely rare), light blue-green jadeite, larimar, chalcedony, chrysocolla, and many others.

A special place in this list is left for a peculiar material: blue amber. Few even know that it exists – but there are places in the world where such amber can be found.

Are these the only finds of unusual blue gemstones?

Wondermondo has to admit: this list has been rounded to a nice, traditional number of ten. Are there any other unique finds of blue gemstones? Yes: definitely. Some of these finds are:

Larimar, Dominican Republic
Larimar, Dominican Republic / Vassil, Wikimedia Commons / public domain
  • Ameib Farm – Namibia, Erongo. Well, this can not be called a mine or even a proper find. But… from time to time here are found light blue crystals of jeremejevite which are large enough to be used as gems. This is one of the rarest gemstones in the world. Only some of them have a blue color.
  • Batalha mine – Brazil, Paraiba. The first find of the gorgeous Paraiba tourmaline – a seemingly glowing, electric blue tourmaline which was discovered in 1987. Later similar tourmalines were found in Nigeria and Mozambique.
  • Bor Keo mines and Ban Gaew – Cambodia, Ratanakiri. Mines of the best blue zircon… which is not blue. Here is mined zircon that obtains beautiful blue color only after heat treatment.
  • Daha kyanite mines and some other mines in Nepal, Karnali Pradesh. The only finds of high-quality kyanite gems in the world. This find is unusual – before this kyanite was considered to be of rather low interest to the gem industry but crystals from Nepal can be compared to the best sapphires!
  • Los Chupaderos – Dominican Republic, Baoruco. This is a find of the best decorative, blue-colored, translucent concretions of a variety of pectolite: larimar. The Dominican Republic is the only source of this stone.
  • Tranomaro grandidierite mine – Madagascar, Anosy. By far the best find of grandidierite – one of the rarest gemstones in the world. Tranomaro mine provides comparatively large, high-quality, lucid crystals that have a wonderful light blue-green color.

WorldViolet List of 10 finds of unique blue gemstones


Palo Quemado amber mine

3.3 out of 10 stars 33.3%

Dominican Republic, Santiago Province

Stone: Amber

Is this the only place in the world? No, but this is the richest find. There is known blue amber from Indonesia and Mexico too.

In short: This amber is blue only if the light shines ON it. When looking through it – it is light yellow. Material is rarer than, for example, diamond.

Entrance in amber mine, La Cumbre in Dominican Republic
Entrance in amber mine, La Cumbre in Dominican Republic / Ken Mayer,
/ CC BY 2.0

Blue garnets of Bekily

2.8 out of 10 stars 28.3%

Madagascar, Androy Region

Stone: Unique variety of pyrope-spessartine

Is this the only place in the world?No, but this could be the only place in the world where blue garnet is (was?) found on a regular basis. There are known occasional finds of blue garnets in Kenya, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania.

In short: Garnets and blue color seemed to be incompatible… until 1997-1998. It is possible though that the find has been exhausted by now and we have some hundreds of stones from it.

Color change of the unique Bekily blue garnet
Color change of the unique Bekily blue garnet / Gemgazer, screenshots fromYoutube video

Merelani Hills – the only find of tanzanite

4.3 out of 10 stars 43.3%

Tanzania, Manyara

Stone: Tanzanite

Is this the only place in the world? Yes.

In short: Wonderful blue crystals were found in Merelani Hills around 1967. This turned out to be a new kind of gemstone and thus far no other place in the world has provided tanzanite. The stone needs heat to obtain the blue color – the first finds could be colored by forest fires.


Benitoite Gem Mine

3.7 out of 10 stars 36.8%

United States, California

Stone: Benitoite

Is this the only place in the world? Yes, this is the only find of gem quality benitoite.

In short: One of the few naturally blue gemstones in the world – there is needed no heating to get a strong blue color, contrary to tanzanite and most sapphires. Best jewels may be more expensive than diamonds (but, in fact, many gemstones are more expensive than diamonds).

Benitoite (blue) with neptunite (dark brown)
Benitoite (blue) with neptunite (dark brown) / Parent Géry, Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0

Sar-i Sang lapis lazuli mines

4.5 out of 10 stars 45.3%

Afghanistan, Badakshan Province

Stone: Lapis lazuli

Is this the only place in the world? By far – not. But here is found the most beautiful lapis lazuli in the world.

In short: Lapis lazuli here is mined for thousands of years and sold all over the world. Blue pigment – ultramarine – from these mines has been used in works of art of Titian, Vermeer, and other great painters.

Rare crystal of lapis lazuli from Sar-i Sang mines, Afhganistan
Rare crystal of lapis lazuli from Sar-i Sang mines, Afhganistan. / Parent Géry, Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0

Maxixe Mine – unique blue beryl find

2.4 out of 10 stars 24.3%

Brazil, Minas Gerais

Stone: Blue variety of aquamarine (maxixe)

Is this the only place in the world? No. There are recent finds of similar beryls to maxixe in Nigeria, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, and Canada (Yukon). But Maxixe mine was the first and of unusual quality (at first).

In short: Deep blue beryls from Brazil were a sensation one century ago. But these stones lost their unusual color of heated or left in sunlight. Now there are not known any blue beryls from Maxixe mine anymore.

Blue aquamarine (not intense enough for maxixe) from Brazil
Blue aquamarine (not intense enough for maxixe) from Brazil / Parent Géry, Wikimedia Commons / public domain

Kashmir sapphire mines: source of the best blue sapphire

4.3 out of 10 stars 42.8%

India, Jammu and Kashmir

Stone: Sapphire

Is this the only place in the world? By far – not. But Kashmir sapphire is the best blue sapphire in the world.

In short: Sapphires of exceptional quality were found high up in the Kashmir mountains in the late 19th century. The best quality stones were mined at first – and now most of these stones are lost. Now the mines have been exhausted. Top-quality Kashmir sapphire is not traded anymore and its price is unknown – but extremely high.

Kashmir Sapphire Mines near Padder in the late 19th century
Kashmir Sapphire Mines near Padder in the late 19th century. / LaTouche T. H. D., 1890. / public domain

The old Persian turquoise mines near Nishapur

4.6 out of 10 stars 45.8%

Iran, Khorasan Razavi

Stone: Turquoise

Is this the only place in the world? By far – not. This mine though provides the world’s most beautiful turquoise for some 5000 years!

In short: One of the world’s oldest gemstone mines where the stones will be sufficient for several more centuries. Nishapur turquoise left a profound impact on the art of Persia. Today the world market is full of cheap, low-quality turquoise and most people never realize how gorgeous is the real, top-quality turquoise which is found only in Iran, near Nishapur.

Freshly mined turquoise in Nishapur mines
Freshly mined turquoise in Nishapur mines. / Farhad Safari, Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 4.0

Finds of cobalt blue spinel in Lục Yên, Vietnam

4.2 out of 10 stars 41.8%

Vietnam, Northeast

Stone: Spinel that contains cobalt

Is this the only place in the world? No, but these mines provide most of this extremely rare variety of spinel. There are occasional finds of blue spinels in Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, and Pakistan. Recently new finds of blue spinel have been made in Baffin Island (Canada).

In short: In the area near Lục Yên are found some of the world’s best spinels – most in pink and red color. In the early 2000ues here were discovered unusual, bright blue spinels which seem to be glowing. The value of this unusual gemstone is increasing fast.

Cobalt blue spinel from Lục Yên mines
Cobalt blue spinel from Lục Yên mines. / screenshot from Balder Gems, Youtube video

Find of Olmec blue jadeite, Río El Tambor

4.3 out of 10 stars 42.8%

Guatemala, around the central part of Motagua Valley

Stone: Jadeite with traces of titanium and iron

Is this the only place in the world? Most likely yes. There are reported more or less secret finds nearby in Guatemala.

In short: The unusual light-blue variety of jadeite was the most valuable stone for Olmecs – the first civilization in Mesoamerica several millennia ago. During the 16th-19th century, the knowledge of the mines was lost and only in 2000 the first mines were rediscovered in the mountains of Guatemala.

A piercer from Guatemalan blue jade, 12th - 16th century AD
A piercer from Guatemalan blue jade, 12th – 16th century AD. / Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Wikimedia Commons / public domain

WorldYellow Recommended books

Gemstones of the World: Newly Revised Fifth Edition

Following the spectacular success of the first four editions of Gemstones of the World, the revised fifth edition exhibits important updates and a beautiful new cover. All the gemstones ever discovered—now over 1,900—are treated in their many variations. More than 1,500 full-color photos showcase each precious and semiprecious stone in both its rough natural state and its polished and cut renditions.

The Rarest Blue: The Remarkable Story of an Ancient Color Lost to History and Rediscovered

For centuries, blue and purple-dyed fabrics ranked among the ancient world s most desirable objects, commanding many times their weight in gold. Few people knew their secrets, carefully guarding valuable knowledge, and strict laws regulated their production and use. The Rarest Blue tells the incredible story of tekhelet, the elusive sky-blue color mentioned throughout the Bible.

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