Bosnia and Herzegovina is mountainous country with breathtaking scenery and well preserved pristine nature. Most interesting landmarks here are:
- Traditional villages - in the mountains are found quite diverse small villages with big history and great scenery. Almost unique is Lukomir - village of semi-nomadic people.
- Karst features - caves, disappearing rivers, powerful springs and beautiful waterfalls falling over travertine terraces.
Country is rich with interesting medieval structures including the unusual stečaks - tombstones with reliefs of diverse symbols and impressive bridges.
Canyons and ravines
- Drina Canyon (Peručac) - Republika Srpska and Serbia, Zlatibor. Magnificent gorge with 250 - 1000 m high cliff walls.
- Rakitnica Canyon - Herzegovina-Neretva. Beautiful river canyon which is up to 800 m deep and 26 km long. According to local legends this was the birthplace of a dragon.
Other rock formations
- Hajdučka Vrata - Herzegovina-Neretva. Amazing natural arch which resembles a standing ring. Diameter of the hole is approximately 5 m.
- Livanjsko field - Canton 10. World's largest karstic field - polje. Its area is 458.7 km². Field contains multiple and diverse karst features.
- Mokranjska Miljacka cave - Republika Srbska, Pale municipality. The longest known cave in the country, explored length - 7,200 m. Miljacka river starts from this cave. Here have been made paleontological finds, here live unique species of spider (Nemanela lade) and are found traces of prehistoric human activity.
- Vjetrenica - West Herzegovina. At least 6,700 m long cave - impressive karst feature. Most likely the cave is a lot longer and might stretch into neighboring Croatia. In summer a blast of cold air blows from the cave. Cave contains one of the richest cave ecosystems in the world with more than 100 species of cave animals including some 37 species which were first discovered here.
- Kravica - West Herzegovina. Impressive waterfall which is formed by a natural travertine barrage. Waterfall is some 120 m wide and 28 m high.
- Pliva Waterfall - Central Bosnia, Jajce. This 22 m high and approximately 50 m wide waterfall is located in impressive natural setting - at the confluence of Pliva river and Vrbas.
- Štrbački buk - Una-Sana and Croatia, Lika-Senj. Group of large waterfalls which have formed on natural travertine barrages.
Other natural landmarks
- Perucica virgin forest - Republika Srbska. Unique forest with very tall trees. Several species of trees (Picea abies, Abies alba) here exceed the height of 50 m and the tallest tree in the recent past was 63 m tall. Currently the tallest one is Vlado - 57.8 m high Norway spruce.
- Vrelo Bune - Neretva Canton. One of the most powerful springs in world, its average water discharge is roughly 30,000 l/s and sometimes reaches up to 43,000 l/s. There is a beautiful historical town - Blagaj - beside it.
Man made landmarks
- Badanj Cave - Herzegovina-Neretva. Grotto with prehistoric petroglyphs which have been made in the time period between 16,000 and 12,000 BC. Here has existed Upper Palaeolithic settlement.
- Daorson - Herzegovina-Neretva. Remnants of ancient city which was built by Hellenised Illyrian tribe - Daorsi. In the time period between 300 and 50 BC they built here an acropolis. It is surrounded by cyclopean walls which have built from enormous stones.
- Mogorjelo - Herzegovina-Neretva. Remnants of a large Roman villa which was built in the early 4th century AD. Later here were built two basilicas.
Cities, towns and villages
- Blagaj - Herzegovina-Neretva. Beautiful village - town in impressive natural setting ar the powerful Vrelo Bune spring. At the spring around 1520 was built Blagaj Tekija - monastery for the Dervish cults.
- Lukomir - Herzegovina-Neretva. Most remote village in the country, a seminomadic mountain village. Traditional houses are built from stone and have cherry-wood roofs. Next to the village is cemetery with stečaks - traditional tombstones.
- Mostar Old City - Herzegovina-Neretva. Unofficial capital of Herzegovina, beautiful city in valley of Neretva. City contains many valuable buildings in diverse historical styles of architecture, for most part - in Neo-Renaissance and Neo-Classical styles.
- Počitelj - Herzegovina-Neretva. Walled town which is located in a karst amphitheatre. Town was built mainly in the 16th - 18th centuries.
Fortifications and castles
- Bobovac - Zenica-Doboj. Remains of a hilltop fortress - town. This town was built in the early 14th century and served as a seat for the rulers of Bosnia. Fortified town was taken by Ottomans in 1463. Here were buried several kings of Bosnia.
- Ostrožac Castle - Una-Sana. Impressive castle on the top of mountain, built in the 16th century.
- Visoki - Zenica-Doboj. Royal medieval castle town which was built during the 14th century. This town - fortress was quite small, 60 by 25 m large.
- Arslanagić Bridge - Republika Srbska, Trebinje. Unusual medieval bridge which was constructed in 1574. Bridge has three main arches, one of them - double arch with the two arches one above the other.
- Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge - Republika Srbska, Višegrad. Beautiful bridge which was built in the medieval times, in 1577. Total length of the bridge is 179.5 metres, it has 11 arches.
- Stari Most (Mostar) - Herzegovina-Neretva. Magnificent bridge which is spanning the Neretva River with a single arch. Initially it was constructed in 1557 and rebuilt in 2004. Bridge is protected by two fortified towers. Bridge is 29 m long and is important element of urban landscape in this charming city.
Medieval cemeteries with stečaks
- Boljuni necropolis - Herzegovina-Neretva. One of the most impressive medieval cemeteries with 274 stečaks - characteristic tombstones. 92 of these stones are decorated - also with reliefs of lion, woman with a child in hands, rosettes etc. Most of these tombstones were created in the middle of the 15th century.
- Dugo Polje - Herzegovina-Neretva. Picturesque field with medieval cemetery. Here are located some 150 stečaks - characteristic tombstones. 32 tombstones are decorated with different symbols, most of them - rosettes and crosses.
- Radimlja - Herzegovina-Neretva. Largest necropolis with stečaks - characteristic tombstones from the medieval age, mostly 15th and 16th centuries. 63 of these tombstones are decorated with interesting and often enigmatic reliefs - spirals, rosettes etc.
Other man made landmarks
- Atomska Ratna Komanda (ARK) - Herzegovina-Neretva. The largest nuclear bunker in the area of former Yugoslavia. This secret structure was built in 1953 - 1979 spending 29 billion USD (by present day value). Shelter is 280 m deep and could sustain up to 350 people for up to 6 months. Now it serves as a meeting site for artists.
- Emperor's Mosque in Sarajevo - Sarajevo. This medieval mosque was built in 1457 and was the first mosque after the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia. Rebuilt in 1565. Mosque has many valuable and intricate architectural details.
- Mlinčići in Jajce - Central Bosnia. Group of 19 wooden watermills which have been built on the natural travertine barrage - wide waterfall on Pliva River.
- Podbrdo in Medjugorje - Herzegovina-Neretva. Site where, reportedly, apparitions of Virgin Mary started in 1981 and continue up to this day. Since then Medjugorje has been turned into an important site for piligrims.
- Sarajevo Tunnel - Sarajevo. 840 m long tunnel under the runway of airport which was built during the siege of Sarajevo in 1993. In both sides tunnel started in private houses and through the tunnel was supplied oil, electricity, telephone connections, it was used for transport of most needed supplies to the city. During the war it was used by several million people.
List of described attractions by administrative division
Bosnia and Herzegovina has complex division into Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina with 10 cantons, Republika Srbska with 64 municipalities (too much to show here) as well as Brčko District.
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into 10 cantons:
|Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde|
The other two parts of the country are:
Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Featured: Pliva Waterfall
One of the most impressive waterfalls in Southern Europe is Pliva Waterfall in the centre of Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Now this waterfall is some 22 m tall and approximately 50 m tall but it has seen many changes - reinforcements in order to save the waterfall from collapse.