The natural and man made heritage of Cameroon is very rich and, most likely, there are additional outstanding landmarks which are not known to wider audience and even specialists. This large country has huge landscape diversity ranging from sea and lowland rainforests to volcano summits and savannah. Highlights of Cameroon are:
- Indigenous architecture. Several ancient cultures evolved in Cameroon and traces of their impact are seen up to this day. Some styles of vernacular architecture in Cameroon are truly unique, such as Musgum architecture in the north of country. Amazing landmarks are palace complexes of local chiefs (fons), especially the historical centre of Bafut.
- Crater lakes. Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun got the dubious world fame of "lakes - killers" in the 1980s, when they exploded, emiting huge clouds of carbon dioxide. Other crater lakes may also have gas in their sediments but are unusual due to unique ecosystems - each of them has whole collection of water animals which are not found anywhere else in the world.
- Kola Gorges - North. Narrow and impressive, some 4 km long gorge. Depth of gorge is 30 - 35 m, it ends with some 20 m tall waterfall and cave.
- Rhumsiki volcanic plugs - Far North. Mountainous area with amazing volcanic plugs - giant rock needles. This area with its traditional cultural landscape and round houses of Kapsiki people belongs to most beautiful places in Africa.
- Fovu Caves (Baham Cave) - West. Rock shelters under giant blocks of granite. The largest cave room is 40 m long, 20 m wide and 15 m high. Sacred site.
- Nka'a Cave - West. 168 m long cave with river running through it. After the cave there is natural bridge over the river. Cave is used for ritual purposes and locals consider that this is dangerous place at night.
- Ekom Falls - Littoral and West. Spectacular, approximately 50 m (some sources mention 80 m) tall plunge of Nkam River. Beautiful scenery adds to the beauty of falls.
- Lobé Falls - South. Large waterfall which falls directly into the sea. The total height of falls exceeds 20 m (tallest step - 15 m) and width - 100 m. Sacred site to local people.
- Menchum Falls - Northwest. Approximately 30 m tall waterfall of the powerful Menchum River. There are more rapids and waterfalls on this river.
- Métché Falls - West. 40 m tall, rather wide plunge over cliff overhang. Sacred site to local people, reportedly used to get rid of curse.
- Lake Barombi Mbo - Southwest. 5 - 7 km² large volcanic lake with large number of endemic freshwater species. 11 species of cichlids, catfish Clarias mclareni, sponge Corvospongilla thysi and shrimp (Caridina sp.) are found only here. Lake deposits contain much carbon dioxide, like many other local volcanic lakes.
- Lake Bermin - Southwest. Although this crater lake is only 0.583 km² large, 9 species of cychlid fish are endemic, found only here. Not far is another crater lake - Lake Dissoni - which has only three species of fish - but all these species are found only here.
- Lake Ejagham - Southwest. Small lake, formed by groundwater and surrounded by tropical forest. Although this lake is only 1000 by 700 m large, here have evolved 7 endemic species of fish.
- Lake Monoun - West. So called exploding lake which can emit huge amount of carbon dioxide thus killing the people and animals around the lake. Last eruption in 1984 killed 37 people.
- Lake Nyos - Northwest. Crater lake with a pocket of magma, which leaks carbon dioxide in the lake water from below. As a result lake sediments become oversaturated with carbon dioxide. From time to time lake explodes, emitting huge amount of carbon dioxide. Last eruption in 1986 killed 1,700 people.
Other natural landmarks
- Anloua swamps - Adamawa. Unique lake deposits where the largest vivianite crystals have been found. Largest crystals were up to 1.35 m long, now are found up to 40 cm long, green and translucent crystals. The formation of such large crystals in lake deposits is unique.
- Mount Cameroon - Southwest. Possibly the oldest still-active volcano in the world which has been active for 30 million years at least. This enormous mountain rises 4 040 m from the ocean and is located over one of the largest known reservoirs of magma.
- Mount Oku swamp - Northwest. The highest sphagnum swamp in West Africa, located at the height of 2,900 m. Swamp contains unique species of plants and is surrounded by pristine cloud forest.
Man made landmarks
- Bidzar petroglyphs - Far North. Find of some 500 petroglyphs etched on marble surface, mostly geometric symbols: circles, cupules.
- Diy-Gid-Biy - Far North. Abandoned settlement or sacred site, which was abandoned sometimes around the 15th century AD. Consists of a group of dry stone walls which rise up to 6 m tall. Site contains also tunnels which are overlaid with massive stones. In this region are found 15 similar sites.
- Shum Laka shelter - North West. Enormous rock shelter - space under rock overhang. People have lived in this site over the last 32 thousand years and deposits contain numerous artefacts, including burials. This place is sacred to local people.
- Saa-Mbura and Saa-Machub megaliths - Littoral. Two large groups of megalithic structures - standing stones arranged in circles, squares, alignments. Time of construction is not known.
- Bafut - Northwest. Centre of Bafut Chiefdom with shrine, palace, houses for secret societies, lodges and women's houses. Houses are built from mud brick, roofs are tiled with terracotta. In the centre of this town is located Achum Shrine (Bagangu), rebuilt in the 1910s in traditional style, with interesting, distinct ornamentation. Another important building is Bafut Palace where lives ruler - Fon of Bafut. Only he and his wives can enter Achum Shrine. Palace was built more than 400 years ago, current palace was rebuilt in the early 20th century.
- Musgum mud huts in Pouss - Far North. In this remote area of Cameroon has evolved unique style of construction - unusual, beehive formed buildings with ornamentation and bright colors. The small settlement of Pouss is rich with these buildings, interesting is also Sultan's Palace.
- Foumban Royal Palace - West. Administrative centre of Bamoun people, large palace which was constructed in 1917. Today it contains Sultan's museum and rich collection of traditional weapons. Foumban is centre of culture, where indigenous writing (Shumom or Bamum script) was invented and used.
- Palace of King's Bell - Littoral, Douala. Palace of the King Auguste Manga Ndumbe, built in 1905 in Eclectic style.
- Rey Bouba Palace - North. Centre of power for Rey Bouba sultanate - large complex of buildings over an area of 5 ha. Core part of the complex is surrounded by 800 m long and up to 7 m tall wall, with 6 doors. Complex was constructed in 1805 - 1808.
List of described attractions by regions
Cameroon is divided into 10 regions.
Map of Cameroon
Featured: Lobé Falls
The 10 - 17 m tall Lobé Falls belong to the very small number of waterfalls discharging directly into the sea.
With ancient chiefdoms tucked between terraced fields and volcanic mountains, Mount Cameroon―Africa's highest peak, the impressive Waza National Park with its herds of elephants, and the coast's sleepy palm-fringed beaches, Cameroon has no shortage of attractions, yet it somehow fails to be a tourist haunt.
This is a story of love and family that involved a three month visit to Cameroon, a country that most Americans have a hard time finding on a map. Relatively few visitors find their way here since most tours focus on the plains of East Africa.