Territory

Wonders of Nigeria

Matsirga Waterfalls
Matsirga Waterfalls. / Global Landscapes Forum (Hamza Shaibu), Flickr / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

WorldBlue  Highlights

Although Nigeria does not belong to popular tourist destinations these days, this large multicultural and geographically diverse country has many surprising and little known wonders.

The country is unique not only due to its uninterrupted cultural traditions tracing back to ancient times but also due to another feature: its geographical diversity. The country has rainforests, mountains, deserts, beaches, mangrove forests, and enormous rivers. In numerous locations, people have managed to reach a certain harmony with the environment and most landmarks of Nigeria have both natural and cultural values. Nigerians attribute spiritual characteristics to many of their beautiful natural and cultural monuments and there are many unusual stories told about them.

Map with the described wonders

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WorldViolet Top 25 wonders of Nigeria

Geological wonders

Zuma Rock

Niger

Very impressive, 725 m high monolith that rises like an enormous boulder. One of the most impressive monoliths in the world.

Zuma rock, Nigeria
Agbokim Waterfalls

Cross River

Possibly the most impressive waterfall in Nigeria. Some 75 m high, divided into seven streams.

Agbokim Waterfalls
Farin Ruwa Falls

Nasarawa

Very impressive waterfall – a powerful stream that slides down a steep rock. Total height of falls is around 150 m

Farin Ruwa Falls
Matsirga Waterfalls

Kaduna

Some 25 – 30 m tall waterfall – one of the most impressive ones in Nigeria.

Matsirga Waterfalls
Riyom Rock

Plateau

Natural stack of rocks that resembles a giant modernist sculpture.

Riyom Rock
Gurara Falls

Niger

Some 30 m tall and 200 m wide waterfall.

Gurara Falls
Agbele Rock

Oyo

Rock spire – amazing balancing stone. It resembles a women that is carrying an oversized basket in its back. Local legends tell that this is an enchanted women – thief.

Agbele Rock
Iyi Nzu waterfall

Enugu

Some 50 meters tall waterfall that falls into a narrow ravine.

Owu Falls

Kwara

100 m tall waterfall.

Owu Falls
Qua Falls (Kwa Falls)

Cross River

Picturesque waterfall in a narrow gorge.

Kwa Falls
Wikki Warm Springs

Bauchi

Wonderful warm springs with a basin of lucid, blue water. This basin is up to 1.9 m deep and the temperature of the water is 31 degrees C.

Wikki Warm Springs
Ikogosi Warm Spring and falls

Ekiti

Two springs – a hot (70 degrees C) and cold spring. Streams of both springs meet, forming a pleasantly warm stream. Thermal waters form several larger and smaller waterfalls here.

Ikogosi Warm Spring

Archaeological wonders

Sungbo’s Eredo

Ogun

160 km long ring-wall enclosing ancient land of Sungbo. Built sometimes around 1000 AD by local culture.

Inside the Sungbo's Eredo ditch, Nigeria
Tunga Dutse Rock Paintings

Bauchi

Beautiful rock paintings and engravings, as well as undeciphered writings on a sandstone outcrop.

Ruins of Hidi’s palace, Sukur

Adamawa

The ancient capital or administrative center of Sukur people, inhabited since the Iron age and earlier. Palace is a megalithic structure.

Ruins of Hidi’s palace, Sukur
Marshall Caves

Bauchi

Artificial caves – former dwellings. In total in the sandstone wall are carved 59 such dwellings, some contain rock paintings and engravings. Discovered in 1980.

One of Marshall Caves
Birnin Kudu rock art

Jigawa

Ancient rock art sites and also megaliths. Paintings show cattle and diverse symbols.

Architecture and culture wonders

Ogbunike Caves

Anambra

Sacred site – impressive caves in a tropical forest. This location is sacred up to this day.

In Ogbunike Caves
Old City of Kano

Kano

Some 1000 years old city with city walls.

Kano wall at Sabuwar Kofa
Ife City

Osun

Sacred Yoruba city where valuable sculptures from the 13th-15th centuries have been found.

Sculptures from Ife
Ikom monoliths

Akwa Ibom

Some 300 standing stones, often adorned with faces and ornaments. These monoliths are up to 1.8 m tall and are placed in some 30 circles. Most likely, created in the 16th – 20th centuries AD.

Ikom monolith
Osun-Osogbo sacred forest

Osun

Sacred forest alongside the Oshun River.

Sculpture in Osun-Osogbo sacred forest
Olumo cave shelters

Ogun

Natural fortress – caves that were used as a hiding place during the 19th century warfare between local people.

Olumo cave shelters
Old Oyo city (Oyo-Ile)

Oyo

Capital city of the Oyo Empire around the 12th – 16th centuries.

Dukkey Wells

Bauchi

Unusual water storage system: a group of 139 wells that are interconnected. Wells were made in the 19th century by captured people – slaves.

Dukkey Wells

WorldYellow Recommended books

A History of Nigeria


Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country and the world’s eighth-largest oil producer, but its success has been undermined in recent decades by ethnic and religious conflict, political instability, rampant official corruption, and an ailing economy. Toyin Falola, a leading historian intimately acquainted with the region, and Matthew Heaton, who has worked extensively on African science and culture, combine their expertise to explain the context to Nigeria’s recent troubles through an exploration of its pre-colonial and colonial past, and its journey from independence to statehood.

Nigeria – Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture


Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa with an internal market of 150 million people and an economy growing at around 8 percent a year, is potentially Africa’s next powerhouse. It is nearly one and a half times the size of Texas, with a landmass varying from sandy beaches and tropical jungles, to plains, mountains, and desert. This important West African nation is made up of 250 culturally distinct ethnolinguistic groups.


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