Landmarks of Venezuela

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Angel Falls, Venezuela
Angel Falls / , Flickr / CC BY 2.0

Most interesting landmarks of Venezuela

Below are listed the most amazing natural and man made landmarks of Venezuela.

Natural landmarks of Venezuela

Tepuis

View from Mount Roraima, Venezuela
View from Mount Roraima / , Flickr / CC-BY-2.0

A unique feature of Venezuela and its neighbouring regions of Guyana and Brazil are tepuis – high table-mountains with abrupt, sometimes more than 1 kilometer high sides. Nearly all of them hold numerous unique biotopes, endemic species of plants and animals and lots of breathtaking and unique geological features. There are more than 100 tepuis: among the most outstanding ones should be mentioned:

  • The forested Sarisariñama (Bolivar) with its unusual sinkholes
  • The enormous Auyantepui (Bolivar) – source of Angel Falls
  • Up to 2.8 kilometers high Mount Roraima (Bolivar state, shared with Brazil and Guyana)
  • Autana (Amazonas) – spectacular tepui with up to 1400 meters high walls, with a cave running from one side to the another.

Waterfalls

Most will agree that the most outstanding single natural monument in Venezuela is the highest waterfall in the world – Angel Falls (Bolivar), falling from the vertical wall of Auyantepui. The waterfall is 979 meters high, highest plunge – 807 meters.

Quebrada de Jaspe, Venezuela
Quebrada de Jaspe / Luis Ruiz Berti, public domain.

Kukenan Falls (Bolivar) in many respects resembles Angel Falls and has the second highest single plunge in the world. It falls from Kukenan tepui and is 674 meters high and 61 meters wide. Roraima Falls (Bolivar) is 610 meters in height. There are numerous other very high permanent and seasonal waterfalls falling from tepuis, such as the 600 meters high Iguapo Falls (Amazonas).

Pará Falls (Bolivar) is 5,608 meters wide, with an approximately 64 meters high fall on Caura River and is one of the most powerful waterfalls in world. Also very impressive are the powerful Aponguao Falls (Bolivar); while the powerful Canaima Lagoon Falls and Sapo Falls (both in Bolivar) are very picturesque.

Some unusual monuments are the small Quebrada de Jaspe and Kawi Falls (both in Bolivar) – waterfalls over bright red jasper – a semi-precious stone.

Caves

Venezuela is the place where the first caves in quartzite were discovered and the mechanism of their formation studied. These caves are located on tepuis and have formed over very long time periods – up to 300 million years – and possibly are the oldest in world. The first discovered quartzite cave was Autana cave (Amazonas), a 395 meters long cave, explored in 1971. It is made even more unusual by the fact that it runs from one side of the tepui to another and is up to 40 meters high.

Guácharo Cave, Venezuela
Guácharo Cave / (blog), Flickr / CC BY 2.0

The longest known quartzite cave is Sistema Roraima Sur (Bolivar), often called also Cueva Ojos de Cristal – it has been explored up to its length of 16,400 metres. Recently discovered Imawarì Yeuta (Bolivar, Auyantepui) has a similar length – currently there are explored 15,450 m and here are located amazing, nearly unique silicate formations.

Many other quartzite caves are very unusual as well. No superlatives are able to describe a sinkhole named Sima Aonda – (Bolivar) giant 383 meters deep hole with a waterfall. The stream, which flows through it, emerges at one side of the steep wall of Auyantepui and here, in the open air, falls down for some 100 m. Cueva del Fantasma (Bolivar) is a collapsed gorge on the slope of Aprada tepui, with an extremely impressive, enormous entrance hall. Dense jungle makes the two enormous sinkholes – Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel on the top of Sarisariñama tepui (Bolivar) unusual – even the bottom of both sinkholes is covered with a patch of forest, living its life in isolation for millions of years.

Another highly unusual monument of nature outside the area of the tepuis, in northern part of Venezuela is the 10.5 kilometers long Guácharo Cave (Monagas), where one can find the largest known colony of guácharos, consisting of roughly 15,000 large birds with the unique ability to orientate with the help of echo-location.

Other natural monuments

Deposits with fossils in Urumaco (Falcón) is the most fossil-rich area in the northern part of South America. The arid climate has helped to preserve the remains of the world’s largest known freshwater turtle, a 3 meters long rodent, a 12 meters long crocodile and 15,000 years old human remains.

One interesting site is the only desert (rather enormous dune complex) in Venezuela, Los Médanos de Coro (Falcón); 5 by 30 kilometers in size and consisting of sand dunes up to 40 meters high.

Catatumbo Lightning, Venezuela
Catatumbo Lightning / Thechemicalengineer, Wikipedia, CC-BY-SA-3.0

Guanoco Lake (Sucre) is the largest natural asphalt lake in world – its surface area is 4 km2. It contains more than 4 million cubic meters of asphalt.

Pedernales – Capure mud volcanoes in Orinoco delta (Delta Amacuro) are a group of spectacular 10 – 20 meters tall, active mud volcanoes.

A unique monument is Catatumbo lightning (Zulia), also called the "Lighthouse of Maracaibo". Here in the marshy delta of Catatumbo River, during 140 – 160 days and nights (10 hours mainly in the afternoons) a year there is almost continuous powerful lightning without the sound of thunder. This location is the world’s most powerful generator of tropospheric ozone.

Man made landmarks of Venezuela

Architectural monuments

Venezuela got its name (little Venice) from its unusual settlements – palafitos – houses on stilts on the banks of Lake Maracaibo. There still exist some palafito villages, e.g. such as the villages of Lagunetas as Congo, La Paloma at the south-western bank (Zulia), and the numerous Warao villages in Orinoco Delta (Delta Amacuro).

Zamora Street, Coro in Venezuela
Zamora Street, Coro / Micpol, Wikimedia Commons. CC-BY-3.0

The most authentic colonial town today is Coro (Falcón). It was established in 1527 and to a large extent has preserved its unique adobe houses and old cobbled streets. Although the town was built with a heavy old European influence, it shows the results of indigenous planning and building methods, creating a large impact on the development of the whole region.

University City of Caracas (Capital District) is a unique, harmonious part of the city which was developed in the 1940ies – 1960ies under the supervision of Venezuelan architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva in the Modernist style.

One impressive and elegant structure is the 8.7 kilometers long General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge (Zulia) built in 1958 – 1962.

A untypical monument of culture and to a lesser extent, architecture, is Mountain of Sorte (Yaracuy), a central pilgrimage place for the María Lionza religious cult.

Archaeological monuments

One important archaeological site is Vigirima (Carabobo). Here there are diverse archaeological monuments: such as 165 rocks with approximately 445 petroglyphs (around 0 – the 7th century AD) and megalithic alignments. The only geoglyph (large scale drawing on soil) in Venezuela is the unusual La Rueda del Indio near Valencia (Carabobo). A very important petroglyph site is Piedra Pintada Natural Monument (Amazonas), where there are also ancient Indian cemeteries, paintings and drawings on the walls of cliffs and caves.

Described landmarks of Venezuela

loading map - please wait...

Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel: 4.685500, -64.218500
Catatumbo Lightning: 8.931131, -72.162824
Angel Falls: 5.970097, -62.536368
Sima Aonda: 6.014683, -62.620077

Venezuela is famous for its primeval, vast natural areas with numerous impressive natural monuments: such as the plateaus with abrupt walls (tepui) and numerous very impressive waterfalls, including the world’s highest one – Angel Falls. Extremely high biodiversity is characteristic for the entire country.

Featured: Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel

Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel, sinkholes in Venezuela
Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel, sinkholes in Venezuela / Luis Ruiz Berti, public domain

Only in 1961 famous jungle pilot Harry Gibson happened to fly over this mysterious mountain and spotted something unusual – the carpet of the beautiful green forest was perforated by two enormous and apparently very deep holes – each having a patch of forest at their bottoms.

Recommended books

Venezuela – Culture Smart!


An influential oil producer with a colorful and charismatic president at its helm since 1999, Venezuela is a vast, sometimes frustrating, but never dull country. It is one of the most complex countries in Latin America and one of the least understood. An ambitious attempt to benefit the poor and redistribute oil wealth by President Hugo Chavez has seen a major political transformation in recent years that has put a severe strain on its traditional ties with the USA. He has made steadfast attempts to confront his powerful northern neighbor and reduce Venezuela’s economic dependence on the United States.

Insight Guide Venezuela


Insight Guides, the world’s largest visual travel guide series, in association with Discovery Channel, the world’s premier source of nonfiction entertainment, provides more insight than ever. From the most popular resort cities to the most exotic villages, Insight Guides capture the unique character of each culture with an insider’s perspective.

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