Asia, India, Meghalaya, East Khasi Hills District, plateau south from the centre of Cherrapunji town
Sohra, Sohrarim, Cherra, Cherapunjee, Charrapunji
Nearly all schoolbooks around the world mention a remote village in India - Cherrapunji. For many years this was considered to be the wettest place of the world. Now the title goes to nearby Mawsynram and there are other serious contenders. Whatever, Cherrapunji is extraordinary and beautiful place.
Cherrapunji (the old and lately returned name - Sohra) is a town located on a high plateau in Khasi Hills, rising 600 m above surrounding valleys. This is beautiful, fairy-tale landscape, some 1,200 - 1,400 m above the sea level.
Contrary to the plains of Bangladesh further south, here almost never gets hot: for most part there is pleasant 24°C temperature. Only the dry winters might become unpleasantly cold - sometimes it is almost freezing.
As the spring ends, by the third week of May the weather in Khasi Hills becomes very humid. There has started monsoon - nearly constant wind blowing from the Bengal Bay and Bangladesh to the dry Tibetan plateau which at this time of the year has low atmospheric pressure.
Air masses gather lots of humidity from the baking hot swamps of Bangladesh and sea in Bengal Bay. Wind blows without obstacles over the extremely flat plains of Bangladesh, which 400 km from the sea rise only 10 - 30 m above the sea level.
But, as the humid, heated air masses reach Khasi Hills, over 8 - 9 kilometre distance they reach 1,200 - 1,400 m tall mountains. The abrupt change in conditions leads to extremely heavy downpours of rain, which are expecially powerful on the southern slopes of Khasi Hills.
Another reason for powerful rain is the proximity of Cherrapunji to the line of discontinuity between the dry eastern and northern winds and moist southern and western winds.
Powerful rains and high cliffs lead to another spectacular phenomenon - tall waterfalls. Khasi Hills contain several of the most impressive waterfalls of India. Especially great are the approximately 335 m tall Nohkalikai Falls near Cherrapunji.
Different sources give different number for medium annual rainfall in Cherrapunji - from 10,816 mm to 12,063 mm of rain per year.
More than 80% of rains in Cherrapunji fall in summer: in May - September. Remaining part of the year gets a lot less rain and there might be even droughts in winter, when local people (living in one of the wettest places of the world!) have hard time to get any water. It has happened though that daily rains have lasted here for two years.
As Brits moved in this beautiful land, they noticed the extreme rainfall. Meteorological observatory was established in 1902 in convenient location - Cherrapunji town. Before 1902 there were raingauges installed in several locations of Cherrapunji and thus climatic record is available since 1871 - a luxury which is rare even in many parts of Europe.
Here have been measured several world records of rainfall:
Yearly rainfall - 24,555 mm in 1974.
Rainfall in one month - 9,300 mm in July 1861.
Some believe that Cherapunji holds the record for rainfall in one day - 1,563 mm in 15th - 16th June 1995, measured in 8:30 one day - 8:30 next day. Three times more than it rains in London PER YEAR! In European or American cities even 5 minutes of such rain would lead to flash floods and make headlines in newspapers, but here it continued for a whole day - for 1,440 minutes! But this record has been beaten elsewhere - at Cilaos, Reunion Island, where in 15 - 16 March 1952 was registered 1,870 mm rainfall!
Most rain in Cherrapunji falls in early morning hours, as the moist air rises from valleys, where it has been trapped in the night.
Lately though it has become clear that nearby there are locations which get even more rain. Just 15 km to the west there is Mawsynram village which over the last years becomes established as one of the the rainfall champions in the world. Medium annual rainfall here is 11,873 mm. Most likely also other records have been registered in Cherrapunji just because here is meteorological observatory - other locations nearby may have more rain.
There is another - more worrying tendency. It seems that the climate in Cherrapunji is changing due to the deforestation, what leads to severe droughts in winter. Population in the town has grown from 7 thousands in 1960 to more than 100 thousands in 2000ies in Cherrapunji area (town itself has more than 10,000 inhabitants).
It is well possible that some other remote locations of the world get even more rain than Khasi Hills - just there are no meteorological observatories. Such contenders might be the upper reaches of Nakanaï Mountains in New Britain, Papua New Guinea and many other remote tropical regions. Lloro town in Colombia gets 13,300 mm of rain per year - here the rain is spread throughout the year - thus it certainly beats both Cherrapunji and Mawsynram in this respect, but the intensity of rainfall is less impressive.
Land of Khasi People
The beautiful Khasi Hills are inhabited by the proud and distinctive Khasi people (around Cherrapunji - Khynriam sub-tribe). Khasi belong to mongoloid race, to Mon-Khmer group, and are more closely related to people living in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam than to most other people in India.
Their language - Khasi - is the most northern of Austro-asiatic languages.
Khasi have interesting traditions. One of them is the recent tradition of erecting megaliths - East Khasi Hills contain numerous megaliths (Khasi monoliths). Monoliths, table stones, cromlechs were erected to commemorate important events and deceased people.
Khasi properties are inherited from mother to the youngest daughter. In comparison with other regions in India women here have comparative freedom, they definitely can not be forced into unwanted marriage and they also own the children.
Khasi have been subjugated to other powers and have long fought against this. British Empire took over their land in 1820ies - 1830ies and renamed the ancient Sohra village to Cherrapunji, building a new town to the south from the old village.
Brits declared Sohra as a capital of Assam in 1832 but as the weather was unbearable, capital was relocated to the north, to Shillong in 1866 - 1874.
Life under the rain
Extreme rains in Khasi Hills have created impressive and biologically very diverse landscape. Soil on the summits of plateaus is very poor due to extreme rains - everything is washed away. Thus as a result on the wettest plateau of the world there are not too many plants and the existing ones are used to dry conditions.
This is compensated with rich, fertile land down in valleys. Here grow the most biodiverse forests of India: Meghalaya subtropical forests filled with endemic plants including hundreds of beautiful orchids (265 species recorded in Khasi Hills). Here live tigers, elephants, bears and other large mammals.