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Adivaraha Cave Temple

Simhavishnu relief in Adivaraha Temple
Simhavishnu relief in Adivaraha Temple / Wikimedia Commons, Michael Rabe / CC BY SA 3.0

WorldBlue  In short

One of the few finished monuments in the magic ancient city of Mahabalipuram is Adivaraha Cave Temple. This rock-cut temple contains beautiful sculptures representing some of the highest achievements of South Indian art.

3.9 out of 10 stars 39.3%

GPS coordinates
12.6167 N 80.1903 E (mistake up to 200 m)
Location, address
Asia, India, Tamil Nadu, south of Chennai, Kanchipuram district, Mahabalipuram town, north-western part of temple hill
Hindu shrines, Rock cut temples and monasteries
Alternate names
Adi-Varaha Temple, Paramesvara-Maha-Varaha-Vishnu-Griha
Age
Around 630 – 668 AD
Religion
Hindi
UNESCO World Heritage status
Part of "Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram", 1984, No.249

Map of the site

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WorldYellow In detail

Contrary to some other nearby temples, the Adivaraha temple is under active worship and thus it is not freely available for curious tourists and photographers. It is opened only for a few minutes in the morning.

Architecture

Cave temple has been named after the incarnation of Vishnu – Varaha (boar). There is another temple named after Varaha – Varaha Temple – nearby, thus this temple is named otherwise – Adi-Varaha.

In many aspects the architecture of this temple repeats the other Varaha Temple – with simulated roof structure (traditionally Indian rock-cut temples imitate wooden structures), with pillars adorned with horned lions – vyalas.

Contrary to other nearby temples, this rock-cut temple is darker and damper due to later structure covering the facade. Original (now nearly invisible) facade is magnificent, with four pillars and two pilasters. At the time of construction there opened wide view on tropical lagoon or riverbed.

Colonnade of octagonal pillars divides the main hall in two parts – forepart (maha-mandapam) and rear part (ardha-mandapam).

Maha mandapam starts with the facade construction – four pillars which are adorned with vyalas – horned lions sitting on bases resembling lotus.

Rear part contains a cell – sanctum sanctorum – the main shrine.

Whole temple is adorned with beautiful reliefs.

Art

The art of Adivaraha sculptures surpasses the reliefs of the nearby Varaha Temple.

Forepart is adorned with intricate rock-cut panels with similar themes as in Varaha Temple. But here next to Hindu deities are depicted also some royal figures of the time, possibly Simhavishnu (reigned in 537 – 570 AD) and Mahendra (reigned in 600 – 630 AD). Although the temple is devoted to Vishnu, it is characteristic for Pallava style that next to sculptures devoted to Vishnu here are also Shaivaite motives such as Gangadhara and Durga panels.

Gangadhara panel contains beautiful depiction of four-armed Shiva.

Back wall of forepart contains beautiful panel depicting Gajalakshmi – goddess Lakshmi sitting on a lotus, bathed by elephants and assisted by four otherworldly beauties.

Central panel contains the main relief – devoted to Varaha. It shows Vishnu as a man with the head of the boar defeating Hiranyaksha – a demon who has taken the Earth.

Entrance in the shrine cell is guarded by two guards – dvarapalas with Vaishnavite emblems.

Rear wall of the shrine is adorned with a relief of Varaha made in stucco technique. Most likely this relief has been refashioned numerous times – the current image is not in Pallava style anymore. This relief is covered with bright colors and is worshipped up to this day.

Shrine contains also two panels showing Harihara and Durga. Harihara is a composite depiction of Vishnu and Shiva. Goddess Durga is shown with eight hands, charming and sophisticated, with a parrot on wrist and weapons in hands.

Inscriptions

Inscriptions of Adivaraha Temple rise several unsolved questions.

Floor of the rear hall contains an inscription in Pallava Grantha script – it curses those who don’t worship Shiva. It is weird to find such a text in a temple devoted to Vishnu. It is possible that it has been added in the 11th century.

Another inscription above the Harihara relief lists ten avatars of Vishnu. It is written in Pallava Grantha script, Sanskrit language. It lists Buddha as one of the avatars. Buddhism by this time (the 7th – 8th century) was not a significant religion in this region – thus it is a mystery why Buddha is mentioned here.

On the floor in front of the shrine is an important Sanskrit inscription from the 9th century – it mentions Mahamallapuram. This is the first mention of this glorious city in written sources.

References

  1. Adivaraha Cave-Temple, Tamil Heritage. Accessed in the 2nd May 2010. Contains the text of inscriptions!

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