Cabo Blanco seal colony

WorldBlue  In short

The only true colony of monk seals in the world is Cabo Blanco seal colony living in the westernmost point of African continent. Here live some 200 Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus).

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GPS coordinates
20.7701 N 17.0506 W
Location, address
Africa, Western Sahara and Mauritania, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, southern end of Cabo Blanco peninsula, western cliffs
15 km long coastline
Dominating species
Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus)

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WorldYellow In detail

Most endangered seal in the world

Once upon a time Mediterranean monk seal was a common animal – these 2.4 m long, 240 – 400 kg heavy seals were abundant in the Mediterranean sea, Black sea and part of Atlantic Ocean near Gibraltar, around Madeira, Canary Islands, Azores.

Due to hunting, disturbance, and unfavorable changes in the environment their numbers have dramatically decreased. Now only some 450 – 510 animals survive, mostly around Cabo Blanco, but also around Madeira, in the Aegean Sea and some more locations in the Mediterranean.

Largest colony of monk seals in the world

Major part of these animals live in Cabo Blanco – the westernmost land of the African continent. This is the only sizeable colony of monk seals worldwide, with the far smaller one – 30 Desertas colony in Madeira, with some 30 individuals. There is reported also a colony in the Aegean Sea. Only in Cabo Blanco, the number of animals is large enough to maintain a colony character in the socialization of these animals.

In 1997 in two months’ time many seals died – possibly due to poisoning with saxitoxins from shellfish. The number of animals in the colony decreased from 317 to 109. For the most part, adult animals died. The birth rate of the remaining animals increased and now the colony seems to be on increase again. In 2008 there were observed 145 animals, but in 2009 were reported some 200.

Cabo Blanco peninsula

Cabo Blanco is an approximately 60 km long peninsula, divided between Mauritania and Western Sahara. Above the water, this is true Sahara – almost lifeless, windblown plain. The western coast of the peninsula, which is directed towards the Atlantic, for the most part, consists of 10 – 20 m tall cliffs. Harsh storms have formed several deep caves in these cliffs.

Sea near these inhospitable coasts is very productive due to upwelling: governing winds rise cold, nutrient-rich ocean water to the surface and fish can find here much food – plankton. Empty, endless beaches and a sea full of fish is a perfect environment for seals.

Escape to the caves

Most monk seals were breeding in open beaches some centuries ago. Their pups cannot swim for several weeks after the birth – safe beaches and caring adults are needed for them to survive.

Unfortunately monk seals have been hunted and harassed for centuries and now they hide in inaccessible sea caves.

Cabo Blanco has such caves – most seals here live and breed in two such caves. These caves are dangerous for young seals – the ocean here is harsh and storms – frequent. Storm surges often flood the caves and more than half of young seals die in the first two months after birth.

In 2008 there was observed a seal mother with a pup on an open beach of Cabo Blanco – there is a hope that seals may return to this much safer environment.


  1. L.M.Gonzalez, M.A.Cedenilla, P.F. de Larrinoa, J.F.Layna, F.Aparico. Changes in the breeding variables of the Mediterranean Monk seal (Monachus monachus) colony of Cabo Blanco Peninsula after a mass mortality episode. Mammalia, t. 66., No.2., 2002., pp. 173 – 182.

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