More than 100 years passed since scientific research of Indian rock-cut temples started, hundreds of these monuments were described in numerous books but – out of nothing appeared unknown complex of 28 – 29 caves filled with exquisite art values!
By the way – this was not the last discovery – forgotten Indian cave temples are rediscovered up to this day.
History in short
Creation of these caves started approximately at the 3rd century AD, in time when influential merchants were spreading the teaching of Buddha in India. Many large temples appeared near ancient trade routes. Panhale Kaji was one of such temple complexes, located at busy route from inland to Dabhol – one of the most important port cities at Arabian Sea in these times. Dabhol has been marked even in maps of Ptolemy.
Later, around the 10th – 11th century AD caves became a stronghold of small group of followers to Vajrayana sect (Tantric Buddhism). Some of the earlier caves, for example Cave 10, were adjusted for the worship of deities like Akshobhya and Mahachandaroshana. Interesting monument of art is five Budha sculptures, possibly representing Vajrasana Buddha – showing relatedness to iconography of late Ellora Buddhist Caves.
In the 13th century caves were taken over by Naths, Hindu cult, adding artwork characteristing for their religion. Then, during the late Silahara period these caves were used for Ganapatya and Shiva worship.
Description of caves
Nowadays Panhale Kaji caves represent exquisite monument of ancient art – both regarding architecture, art and the quality of craftmanship. Among other values caves contain also few inscriptions – one inscription in Brahmi script and one in Devanagari script. Some of most interesting caves are described below:
- Cave 2 – ceiling in hall has imitation of wooden beams. Rear wall contains seven small carvings of Mānusi Buddhas.
- Cave 5 – contains relief of Buddhist stupa from the 3rd century AD.
- Cave 10 contains image of Maha-Chandraroshana – this is significant feature as it tells about contacts of Konkana with Ratnagiri – a Buddhist site in Orissa, where this deity is shown on stupa.
- Cave 14 – earlier Buddhist cave with large forecourt. Sometimes around the 13th century it was transformed for worship of deities of Naths. Front wall is adorned with sculpted panels of Nath siddhas – transcendent masters. Contain also representation of Chauranginatha with several feet and hands.
- Cave 19 – contains monolithic linga-shrine inside the hall. Entrance in shrine is guarded by dvarapalas. Ceiling panels in this cave show scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharata.
- Cave 21 contains sculpture of Ganesh.
- Cave 22 contains damaged statue of goddess Sarasvati.
- Cave 29 (known as Gaura-Lena, Gaur Lene) – earlier Buddhist cave transformed for the worship of deities of Natha-pantha. Contains composite panels with images of Matsyendranatha, Adinatha and Uma as well as sculpted panels depicting Goraknatha and Maha-Tripurasundari – the latter according to Lalitasahasranama. Inside the cave there are depicted 84 siddhas in small panels. One panel shows Chauranginatha with several feet and hands. Opposite the entrance of cave there are some more sculptures – Ganesha flanked by Lakshmi and Sarasvati. Outside the cave there are also two large niches with sculptures of Hanuman and Bhairava. In the front of cave a sculptural group – cow and calf.
Unusual element in this complex is large boulder in river – it also has been carved with four imitations of doors.
- Indian Archaeology, 1981 – 82 – a review, New Delhi, 1982.
|Coordinates:||17.6379 N 73.2579 E (mistake up to 1000 m)|
|Categories:||Buddhist shrines, Hindu shrines, Rock cut temples and monasteries|
|Values:||Art, Architecture, History, Archaeology|
|Address:||Asia, India, Maharashtra, Ratnagiri district, left bank of Kotjai river, at Dapilo-Dabhol road|
|Alternate names:||Panhale Kazi, Panhāle-Kāji, Panhale-Kaji, Pranalaka|
|Age:||the 3rd – 14th century AD|
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