American cavers and clay
This enormous abyss was well known to local people since ancient times – it is well seen from the nearby valley. It became known internationally in January 1972, when the abyss was noticed by American speleologists Craig Bittinger and Logan McNatt. First descent in Sótano del Barro took place in April 1972.
Abyss was named after the nearby rancho and initially had a longer name – El Sótano de Rancho Barro. Later it was shortened and now many are somewhat puzzled by this name – this sinkhole has nothing in common with clay.
For a while Sótano del Barro was considered to be the deepest sinkhole in the world but now, as the knowledge about Earth has progressed, there have been found even larger ones.
Sótano del Barro is enormous, elongated hole, seen already from the distance in the slope of the mountain. It has no similarity with caves, it is rather like an enormous 455 m deep, gaping pocket. This giant pocket is elongated in east-west direction.
Total depth of sinkhole is 455 m, but deepest free fall is 410 m. At the surface in east-west direction it is 420 m long and in north-south direction – 200 m wide.
Walls are nearly vertical but closer to the bottom this sinkhole gradually becomes more narrow – at the bottom it is 200 m long and 100 m wide. Along the rims have accrued boulders which have slided down along the walls.
Surface of sinkhole is located at 1860 m height and bottom – at 1405 m height above the sea level.
Volume of Sótano del Barro is approximately 15 mio m³.
Abyss has developed in El Abra formation, Lower Cretaceous limestone – the specific shape of sinkhole has developed along tectonic fissure. Most likely here flow strong underground streams. Judging by the geology of debris in the sinkhole it is approximately 1.5 mio years old.
Parrots and cloud forest
The most admired feature of sinkhole is the largest population of Mexican subspecies of military macaws (Ara militaris mexicana Linnaeus 1765). Here live some 40 pairs of these beautiful green, noisy birds which are beloved pets and, unfortunately, objects of smuggling.
Flocks of these birds leave the cave early in the morning and return in evening, passing by predator birds.
Due to these beautiful birds it is not allowed to drop stones or other objects into abyss – this creates powerful noise and disturbs them. People should not test echo here as well.
Sótano del Barro is located amidst primeval tropical forest – even today there are needed some two hours to access it from the nearest dirt road. Let’s hope that this sinkhole will stay as a rare delicacy for cultured adventure tourists and area around it will keep its pristine beauty.
A small piece of unusual biotope is located also on the bottom of abyss where has formed a layer of soil. Bottom of abyss is chilly, moist and comparatively dark – it serves as a habitat for specific community of plants. Here grow ferns, shrubs and even trees – up to 20 m tall. This small world somewhat resembles the cloud forests of tropical mountains.
Sótano del Barro has been proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage site and certainly belongs to the most amazing natural landmarks of the world.
|Coordinates:||21.3108 N 99.6673 W|
|Values:||Geology, Visual, Biology|
|Address:||North America, Mexico, Querétaro, in Sierra Gorda mountains, Arroyo Seco municipality|
|Alternate names:||El Sótano, Sótano de los Cocos, El Sótano de Rancho Barro|
|Depth:||455 m, entrance shaft – 410 m|
|Volume:||15 million m³|
Area of this country was cradle of several highly developed indigenous civilizations and some regions in the country are dotted with remnants of ancient cities with temples, palaces and pyramids.
This book illustrates the diversity of hypogene speleogenetic processes and void-conduit patterns depending on variations of the geological environments by presenting regional and cave-specific case studies. The cases include both well-known and newly recognized hypogene karst regions and caves of the world. They all focus on geological, hydrogeological, geodynamical and evolutionary contexts of hypogene speleogenesis.
The Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science contains 350 alphabetically arranged entries. The topics include cave and karst geoscience, cave archaeology and human use of caves, art in caves, hydrology and groundwater, cave and karst history, and conservation and management. The Encyclopedia is extensively illustrated with photographs, maps, diagrams, and tables, and has thematic content lists and a comprehensive index to facilitate searching and browsing.