Landmarks of Ecuador

Interior in Santo Domingo Church, Quito
Interior in Santo Domingo Church, Quito / waldopics, / CC BY 2.0

Most interesting landmarks of Ecuador

Below are listed the most amazing natural and man made landmarks of Ecuador.

Natural landmarks of Ecuador

Rock formations

Rio Pastaza in gorge, Ecuador
Rio Pastaza in gorge / fabulousfabs, / CC BY 2.0
  • Cerro de Arcos – El Oro and Loja. Eroded summit of mountain with interesting rock formations. Here are located several larger natural arches, towers and columns.
  • Pastaza Canyon – Tungurahua. Beautiful, jungle covered canyon of Pastaza River. A road goes along the canyon, offering a view on 19 canyons along the way.
  • Rumichaca natural bridge – Carchi and Colombia, Nariño. Possibly the only natural bridge in the world, serving as a border check between two countries. Next to it stands Inca built artificial bridge. Here are located two ornate customs houses as well.


  • Chimborazo – Chimborazo. The farthest point on the Earth’s surface from the center of Earth. The highest mountain in Equador, 6,268.2 m high. The ice near the summit is mined for transport to the nearby cities.
  • Cotopaxi volcano – Cotopaxi. 5,897 m high volcano – one of the highest active volcanoes in the world. The mountain has beautiful, symmetrical cone and contains one of the rare equatorial glaciers in the world, starting at the height of 5,000 m.


Pailón del Diablo, Ecuador
Pailón del Diablo / Clayre Taylor, Flickr / CC BY-SA 2.0
  • Machay Falls – Tungurahua. 45 m tall waterfall on a tributary, falling into the canyon of Pastaza.
  • Manta de la Novia Falls – Tungurahua. Double waterfall in a side tributary of Pastaza River. Free falling cascades are approximately 40 m high.
  • Pailón del Diablo – Tungurahua. Magnificent group of waterfalls in Pastaza Canyon. Total height of cascades – 80 – 100 m.
  • San Rafael Falls – Napo. This 131 m tall and 23 m wide waterfall is the tallest in Equador. In the early 2020 the waterfall changed its course – shortly before it formed a sinkhole and now here is rather unimpressive waterfall with three steps.


  • Páramo El Ángel – Carchi, north from El Angel. Beautiful montane meadows with tall frailejón plants (mainly Espeletia pycnophylla), creating eerie landscape. One of the largest meadows with frailejónes.
  • Valle de los Frailejones, Llanganates – Napo. An exceptional moor – the southernmost grove of frailejones. Here grows the endemic Espeletia pycnophylla ssp. llanganatensis).
  • Yasuni Forest – Pastaza, Orellana, Napo. Possibly the most biodiverse area in the world. In this rainforest the diversity of reptiles, amphibians, freshwater fishes, birds, mammals and vascular plants (with 2,700 – 4,000 species of plants per hectare) reaches their maximum for Western Hemisphere and often – world. Uncontacted tribes live in the forest. Endangered and affected by oil extraction.

Other natural landmarks of Ecuador

  • Cueva de los Tayos – Morona Santiago. Large natural cave with three entrances. The largest starts as a 65 m deep shaft which leads into 4.6 km long network of passages. Pseudoscientific theories by Erich von Däniken created much interest about the cave in the 1970ies but less important finds were done here, including a burial from 1500 BC.
  • Puyango Petrified Forest – El Oro. A site with impressive, petrified trunks of giant araucarias. These fossil trees were growing some 5 million years ago. The largest pieces are 15 m long and with a diameter up to 2 m. In this location are found also many other interesting fossils – amonites, fish, snails etc.

Man made landmarks of Ecuador

Prehistoric settlements

Ruins of Ingapirca, Cañar in Ecuador
Ruins of Ingapirca, Cañar / Marc Figueras, / public domain
  • Cojitambo Cañar Inca ruins – Cañar. Ruins of an abandoned city with impressive walls.
  • Ingapirca – Cañar. Ruins of prehistoric city of Cañari and Inca cultures. Largest ruins of Inca structures in Ecuador. Among the most interesting structures are temple of the Sun, palace, underground water supply system. The earlier Cañari structures are round.
  • Loma Alta – Guayas. Early settlement of Valdivia culture. Here have been found small limestone and marble figurines.
  • Malqui – Machay – Cotopaxi. Ruins of an interesting Inca settlement, possible burial site of the last Inca – Atahualpa. Site has sophisticated aqueducts, large stone walls.
  • Pambamarca Fortresses – Pichincha. A complex system of fortresses on the top of eroded volcano. These fortresses mark the border of Inca Empire, where fierce battles took place in the late 15th – early 16th century. The largest is Quitolooma fortress with some 70 stone structures.
  • Real Alto – Guayas. Ancient settlement of Valdivia culture from 4400 – 1700 BC with very interesting archaeological finds. Here has been found the earliest proof of the use of maize as primary subsistence crop, as well as small, unusual sculptures.
  • Santa Ana – La Florida settlement – Zamora Chinchipe. Remnants of ancient Amazonian culture from sometimes around 2450 BC. Ruins of circular buildings, tomb with numerous offerings. Characteristic vessels of polished stone with interesting iconography.

Other archaeological monuments

  • Piedra Indimama – Napo, north of Cotundo. One of the countless petroglyph sites in Cotundo valley. Petroglyphs are common throughout Ecuadorian jungle.
  • Yaku Waa – Cave near Charupe – Pastaza. Cave, which starts at the eastern bank of Pastaza. According to recent legends, in this cave was found a large library, which was later attributed to Cueva de los Tayos, another cave. Thus now it is rather a site of legends.


Quito / Marcio Ramalho, / CC BY 2.0
  • Cuenca, historical center – Azuay. Beautiful historical city, established in 1557 in the site of earlier settlement – Tomebamba. Preserved numerous valuable buildings in colonial styles as well as the ruins of pre-European Tomebamba (Tumebamba). Most of the historical architecture in the city is from the 18th century, largely modernized in the 19th century, when the city was especially rich.
  • Quito, historical center – Pichincha. One of the best preserved and most interesting historical city centers in Americas. The city is founded in 1535 in its current location. Contains more than 130 monumental buildings, rich with art values and some 5,000 listed buildings.
  • Zaruma, historical center – Zaruma. Beautiful colonial town, founded in 1560. City has irregular, picturesque planning, numerous ornate buildings.

Renaissance and Baroque churches and monasteries

Church of the Society of Jesus, Quito
Church of the Society of Jesus, Quito / Dr. Carlos Costales Terán, / CC BY-SA 3.0
  • Church and Convent of San Francisco, Quito – Pichincha, Quito. The largest historical church building in Americas, built in 1550 – 1680. This beautiful structure represents a harmonious blend of Renaissance, Mannerism and Baroque styles. Interior is sumptuous, with much gold and other precious materials.
  • Church of the Society of Jesus, Quito – Pichincha, Quito. One of the pearls of Baroque architecture in Americas, built in 1605 – 1765. Very ornate building with gold coated interior.
  • Metropolitan Cathedral with El Sagrario, Quito – Pichincha, Quito. Main church in Quito, built in 1562 – 1877. Beautiful is El Sagrario – a Renaissance styled chapel from the late 17th century with beautiful frescoes.
  • Riobamba Cathedral – Chimborazo. Beautiful, cathedral in Baroque style with ornate facade. Rebuilt after the earthquake in 1810 – 1835.
  • San Agustín Church and Monastery, Quito – Pichincha, Quito. Baroque style church, built in the 17th century. Monastery has a cloister. Sumptuous interiors.
  • Santo Domingo Church, Quito – Pichincha, Quito. Ornate church, built in 1580 – first half of the 17th century in Renaissance and Baroque styles. Interesting, rich interior with valuable sculptures.

Newer churches

  • Basílica del Voto Nacional – Pichincha, Quito. Enormous, ornate church – the largest church in Neo-Gothic style in Americas. Built in 1892 – 1909, not entirely finished up to this day. Towers are 115 m high, basilica is 140 m long.
  • Guayakquil Metropolitan Cathedral – Guayas. Enormous and impressive cathedral in Neo-Gothic style. Church has been built here already in the 16th century, but the current one was built in 1924 – 1937. Beautiful stained glass.
  • Our Lady of El Cisne Church – Loja. Beautiful Neo-Gothic basilica, built in 1934. This church is modeled after a similar basilica in Harlungenberg, Germany. Here is located a miraculous sculpture of Madonna.
  • New Cathedral of Cuenca – Azuay. Enormous and ornate cathedral, built in Neo-Romanesque style. Construction started in 1885 and lasted almost for one century. Three enormous domes rise above the structure.


Virgin of El Panecillo, Quito
Virgin of El Panecillo, Quito / Adn Montalvo Estrada, / CC BY-SA 2.0
  • Monument in La Mitad del Mundo – Pichincha. 30 m high monument built in a supposed site of equator, built in 1979 – 1982. The exact equator is located some 240 m north from the monument. Inside the monument is a small museum of indigenous Equadorian culture.
  • Virgin of El Panecillo – Pichincha, Quito. Giant, 45 m tall sculpture of Virgin, built in 1976. Located on the top of volcanic hill.

Other man made landmarks of Ecuador

  • Carondelet Palace – Pichincha, Quito. Government seat, an ornate palace, gradually built since the late 16th century. Largely rebuilt in Neo-Classicism style in the early 19th century, with ornate interiors.
  • Tulcán cemetery – Carchi. One of most unusual cemeteries in the world, with beautiful topiary plantings – scrupulously sheared bushes in a form of grotesque humans, arcs and different symbols.

Described landmarks of Ecuador

Travelers' Map is loading...
If you see this after your page is loaded completely, leafletJS files are missing.

Although Ecuador is somewhat smaller than its neighbors, the country nevertheless has very diverse landscape and high diversity of cultural and natural landmarks.

The highlights of Ecuador are:

  • Late Renaissance and Baroque architecture. This might be surprising – but this faraway South American country has splendid examples of these European styles of architecture! Most amazing are several churches in Quito – Church of the Society of Jesus, Church and Convent of San Francisco.
  • Historical cities. It is possible that Quito has the most beautiful historical center in South America – thousands of buildings here have valuable architecture. Also such cities as Cuenca and Zaruma are rich with historical architecture. Much local flavor is added by the volcanic landscape around these beautiful cities.
  • Biological diversity. Much explored and much known are Galápagos Islands – one of the wonders of the world. But not less impressive is the incredible diversity of Yasuni Forest – possibly the most biodiverse place in the whole world. Spectacular and unique is the Páramo El Ángel landscape with countless frailejón plants.
  • Archaeological heritage. Ecuador is home to several indigenous cultures, including the very ancient Valdivia culture. In the whole country are made new discoveries of archaeological monuments, but many more might be expected. For example, Wondermondo has seen photographs of enormous stone sculptures in the endless forest around Pastaza River – and could not find any reports about these sculptures in latest decades.

Featured: Páramo El Ángel – eerie land of frailejones

Frailejones - Espeletia pycnophylla and fog, Páramo El Ángel
Frailejones – Espeletia pycnophylla and fog, Páramo El Ángel / Thomas van Hengstum, / CC BY-SA 3.0

In the highlands of tropics in several locations of the world have formed unique montane moors with eerie, tall plants.

Páramo El Ángel in Ecuador is characteristic example of such ecosystems – here thousands of frailejones are rising up to 10 m tall.

Recommended books

Ecuador and Galapagos

Insight Guide Ecuador and the Galápagos is an indispensable guide to a land of epic scenery, astonishing wildlife and fascinating cultural diversity, accompanied by stunning travel photography. Be inspired by our Best of Ecuador section highlighting unmissable sights and experiences and lavish Photo Features on textiles, colonial architecture and the unique Galápagos birdlife.

Ecuador – Culture Smart!

Squeezed between Colombia in the north and Peru in the south, Ecuador is named for its location on the Equator and has a landscape so varied that it has been described as a microcosm of every microclimate found in South America. This diversity makes it a magnet for tourists, mountain trekkers, volunteers, and increasing numbers of US retirees looking for a warm, culturally interesting, economical, and safe place to spend much of their time.



Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here