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Cotton Tree in Freetown

Cotton Tree in Freetown, Sierra Leone
Cotton Tree in Freetown / postcard, from the Website of Dragan Buškulič, ""

Main characteristics

Coordinates: 8.4872 N 13.2356 W
No:403        (list of all attractions)
Address:Africa, Sierra Leone, centre of Freetown, crossing of Siaka Stevens Street, Pademba Road, Independence Avenue and Walpole Street
Species:Cotton tree, ceiba (Ceiba pentandra var. guineensis)
Height:> 30 m
Girth:> 12 m

In the very centre of Freetown, in a roundabout surrounded by a concrete fence stands enormous tree - the famous Cotton Tree of Freetown.

This tree serves as a symbol for the whole nation of Sierra Leone.

Ceiba pentandra

Cotton tree (Ceiba pentandra) grows both in tropical America and tropical Africa. It is not entirely clear where the tree appeared naturally and where it was brought by people - but it is possible that ceiba originally grew in Western Africa and could be brought elsewhere by ocean streams. Or vica verse... by streams from America to Africa. Who knows?

Ceiba (kapok, cotton tree) grows up to 77 m tall (unchecked height of one tree in Costa Rica) and has impressive buttresses characteristic for rainforest trees. Trunk above the buttresses often exceeds diameter of 3 m.

Seed ponds of this tree contain strong and light fibre, which gave name to the tree - "cotton tree". The collection of this fibre is not an easy work but the fibre serves as excellent filling for mattresses, children toys, pillows.

Cotton Tree in Freetown, Sierra Leone
Cotton Tree in Freetown / Christian Trede, / CC BY-SA 2.0 Germany

Return of slaves to Africa

Thousands of black people (then slaves) participated in the American War of Independence. They got a promise that veterans of war will be free people - but white people were filled with prejudice and too often the promise was broken.

Many war veterans with their families decided to return to their home country in Western Africa. A group of such people arrived in the site of present day Freetown, founding the city on March 11, 1792.

The giant tree of Freetown

According to a legend the black settlers disembarked from the ship and went up to a giant tree. They held a thanksgiving service under this tree, thanking to God for their deliverance to a free land. Now this tree is in the centre of Freetown.

There are older stories about slave markets held under this tree - but there is also a contradicting story that the tree was planted by the freed slaves who brought it from America.

It is assumed that this enormous tree is at least 500 years old. Wondermondo could not find any figures of its size - but Cotton Tree dominates above the surrounding houses and seems to be higher than 30 m. A bat colony lives in the tree.

Symbol of Sierra Leone

Today the Cotton Tree is seen as historical symbol of Freetown. Even more - it is seen as a symbol of Sierra Leone by its natives who live abroad.

This silent giant has been a witness of the history of Sierra Leone indeed. The National Museum of the country was founded under the tree in 1957, in the former Cotton Tree Station. Tree saw the suffering and hope of people in the dark times of Sierra Leone civil war in 1991 - 2002, including the brutal invasion in the city in January 1999.

Many local people attribute Cotton Tree with magical properties. Ceiba trees have a special meaning for local cultures, e.g. they were planted along the fortifications, which were built in the times of slave trade.


See this monument on the map of Sierra Leone!


  1. Ferdinand de Jong and Michael Rowlands. Reclaiming Heritage - Alternative Imaginaries of Memory in West Africa. 2007.

Landmarks of Sierra Leone

Landscape in Sierra Leone
Landscape in Sierra Leone / Huxley Ponchot, , CC BY 2.0

Sierra Leone is rich both with natural and man made landmarks. Not too many known that in the country are located several abandoned fortified towns built by local people to escape from slave traders.


Sagole Baobab, South Africa
Sagole Baobab in South Africa / Lara Allen, Tshulu Trust, published with kind permission

Most impressive and interesting separate trees of the the world.

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