Monte Brasil "Phoenician sanctuaries"

The mysterious caverns in Monte Brasil, Azores
The mysterious caverns in Monte Brasil Nuno Ribeiro (?)

Main characteristics

Coordinates: 38.6427 N 27.2313 W (possible mistake up to 200 m)
No:492        (list of all attractions)
Categories:Rock cut architecture, Prehistoric and ancient shrines
Values:Architecture, History, Archaeology, Unexplained
Rank:5
Address:Europe, Portugal, Azores, Terceira Island, western tip of Monte Brasil peninsula, near Zimbreiro fortress
Name in Portuguese:"Templos" no Monte Brasil
Age: unknown (the 4th century BC?)
Culture: unknown (Phoenicians?)
UNESCO World Heritage status:Landscape zone in "Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores" 1983, No.206

There are several small rock-cut chambers - so called Monte Brasil "Phoenician sanctuaries" - near the beautiful Renaissance town Angra do Heroísmo. Their origin is not entirely clear but some scientists consider that these are burials and temples made by ancient Phoenicians in the 4th century BC - long before the discovery of Azores by Portuguese.

Mount Brasil

Near the centre of the beautiful Angra do Heroísmo town is located 205 m tall volcanic cone, rising from the Atlantic ocean. This tuff volcano - Monte Brasil - is connected to the mainland with a narrow ishtmus and most of it is covered with forest. Last volcanic activity took place here some 23 thousand years ago.

For several centuries Monte Brasil served as a fortress protecting the town from pirates. Construction of fortifications started in the late 16th century and, as time passed by, mount was turned into state of art fortress with some 4 km long system of redoubts and several garrisons, as well as a system of roads and pathways to access different parts of peninsula.

View on Monte Brasil, Azores
View on Monte Brasil. Angra do Heroísmo is to the left from the mount. Pico do Zimbreiro is the right peak on Mount Brasil. / José Luís Ávila Silveira/Pedro Noronha e Costa, / CC-BY-SA-3.0

Cavities in the rocks

Near the passage way close to Pico of the Zimbreiro - westernmost peak of Mount Brasil in the cliffs are seen several rock-cut chambers facing the ocean.

Chambers are not large - they seem to be not suitable for habitation. But those who made them, turned much attention to water supply. In one chamber is cistern. Another has a system for gathering and distributing the water to several cavities made on the ground. One cave - with a cistern in it - has a trapeziodal form and an arch-shaped niche in a wall.

Chambers are facing the Atlantic ocean.

Water collection system in the rock-cut caverns inside Monte Brasil, Azores
Water collection system in the rock-cut caverns inside Monte Brasil. / Screenshot from Youtube video "Ancient megalithic sites terceira II" by Omni TM

These are not the only such chambers - towards the east, near Monte de Facho is located another rock-cut chamber with ceremonial tank, rock-cut "chairs", cistern and post-holes which testify that a lighter structure was built here as well.

Similar structures have been found on Corvo and other Azorean islands.

Phoenicians from Carthage?

Researchers at Portuguese Association of Archeological Research (APIA) Nuno Ribeiro and Anabela Joaquinito consider that these chambers might be burial sites and shrines made by ancient Phoenicians from Carthage, possibly in the 4th century BC. These chambers could have served as shrines for goddess Tanit - chief goddess of Carthaginians. Some chambers - hypogea - possibly were used as sites for burial. Niches served as shrines and holes and channels for water had ritual meaning.

Theoretically it is possible that Phoenicians reached Azores - their seafarers managed to cover also bigger distances. Construction of such structures though could mean that these people actually lived in Azores.

More obvious explanations?

Major part of scientific community dismisses arguments of Ribeiro and Joaquinito.

Some specialists consider that these structures served for military purposes and were built in the 16th - 17th centuries. This might have some sense regarding the structures on Mount Brasil - but in some other places where such chambers were found, there are no fortifications.

Other specialists consider that these chambers were made for the needs of agriculture - e.g. to provide water for irrigation. Some chambers though are located in places where no agriculture activities have taken place.

Map

See Monte Brasil "Phoenician sanctuaries" on the map of Azores!

References

  1. Antonieta Costa, Terceira Island as a “megalithic station”. Factual description of some archaeological materials. December 2012

Landmarks of Azores

Traditional windmill and Mount Pico in the background, Azores
Traditional windmill in São Jorge with Mount Pico in the background / Rob Oo, / CC BY 2.0

The westernmost part of Europe is not Ireland or continental Portugal. Westernmost are Azorean islands far, far to the west from the mainland Europe.

Modern Europeans reached these islands in medieval times. There are though multiple claims that islands were reached earlier.

There are also impressive natural landmarks, such as countless waterfalls over the cliffs in Flores island and geothermal fields as well as the beautiful landscape of volcanic craters with their deep calderas and lakes.

Rock cut architecture and sculptures

Great sphinx in Giza, Egypt
Great sphinx in Giza, Egypt / , Flickr / CC BY-SA 2.0

This category includes outstanding rock cut architecture and large rock cut sculptures.

Rock cut architecture is very ancient form of architecture and some of the oldest rock cut structures were tombs and dwellings.

Your thoughts?