Caño Cristales

Caño Cristales, Colombia
Caño Cristales with waterfall and the red Macarenia clavigera. September 2012 / Mario Carvajal, / CC BY-SA 3.0

Main characteristics

Coordinates: 2.2642 N 73.7945 W
No:469        (list of all attractions)
Category:Ecosystems, Lakes, bays and streams
Values:Biology, Visual
Address:South America, Colombia, Meta, Serrania de la Macarena tableland, Rio Caño Cristales some 10 km to the north from La Macarena
Dominant species:Macarenia clavigera

On the ancient Serrania de la Macarena tableland in Colombia is found one of the most spectacular rivers in the world - Caño Cristales. Bottom of this river is colored in seemingly unnatural, gaudy colors.

Serrania de la Macarena

Serrania de la Macarena is far western outpost of Guiana Shield - the same geological formations which in Venezuela forms the famous tepuis with such landmarks as world's tallest waterfall - Angel Falls.

This tableland for most part consists of very hard rock - quartzite and has formed some 1.2 billion years ago. Thus this tableland is much older than, for example, Andes.

Over this long period of time on tableland have evolved numerous unique species of plants and animals. Serrania de la Macarena has served as a natural laboratory where have been created many species which are now spread in much larger area.

Caño Cristales, Colombia
Caño Cristales / Mario Carvajal, / CC BY-SA 3.0

This tableland with its hard bedrock is very poor with nutrients and life has adapted to this - many species which are met here are not found anywhere else in the world.

Rio Caño Cristales

Over the sturdy cliffs of Serrania flow several streams and one of the largest is Rio Caño Cristales. This by far is not a large river - less than 100 km long and up to 20 m wide. In summer it can become almost dry and its crystal clear water is that low on nutrients that here lives no fish (what also helps to keep water crystal clear).

Caño Cristales in March, Colombia
Caño Cristales / Mario Carvajal, / CC BY-SA 3.0

River is fast, with many rapids, waterfalls and unusual potholes - giant's kettles which have been created by pebbles or larger stones turned by the stream and grinding the bedrock.

This river is world famous thanks to its unique plant and algae composition what makes its bottom unusually colorful. The dominating color is caused by water plant Macarenia clavigera - endemic plant which grows only in this part of Colombia. Besides the red color the water of stream, sand and algae create other gaudy colors - yellow, green, blue and black. Due to this the stream is nicknamed also "The River of Five colors" or "The Liquid Rainbow".

Especially beautiful it is in the time period after the rainy period, in late July - November when the red Macarenia clavigera thrives.

Caño Cristales - the red Macarenia clavigera and pits shaped by stones, Colombia
Caño Cristales - the red Macarenia clavigera and pits shaped by stones / Mario Carvajal, / CC BY-SA 3.0

Site is protected - it is inside the Serrania de la Macarena National Park, but at the same time here is developed tourism, sustaining the life of many local families.


See Caño Cristales on the map of Colombia!


  1. Caño Cristales. Accessed in 11.07.2014.

Landmarks of Colombia

Statues in San Agustin, Colombia
Statues in San Agustin, Colombia / Photo from Amazonia Virtual, Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY-SA-3.0

This enormous and extremely diverse country has many spectacular landmarks. Many Colombian attractions are little known and even not named - there are many wilderness areas still waiting for explorers.


Swarm of jellyfish in Jellyfish Lake, Palau
Jellyfish Lake in Palau / , Flickr / CC BY 2.0

Biotope is rather small area with uniform environmental conditions and specific community of life.

Wondermondo examines those biotopes and ecosystems which are unusual: have unusual looks, look unusually beautiful, are located in unusual places, contain unusually high number of endemic species or have other unusual features.

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