Lakes and streams
Described lakes and streams
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What is included in this category?
This category includes unusual lakes, sea bays and streams of the world. One though should remember the principle of Wondermondo: here the landmarks in general are smaller than 500 km³, thus here are not included large lakes or long rivers.
There are many factors that can make lakes, sea bays or rivers unusual. Below are listed some kinds of these factors.
Summits of volcanoes often have craters which have been shaped by eruptions. In these craters often are forming lakes and often the unusual chemistry and geothermal energy of volcanoes turn them into unique lakes.
Some lakes in volcanic craters consist of acid. It means – there is no acidic water but just – acid. Acidity of some crater lakes is almost 0 pH – thus in the central part of Kawah Ijen (Indonesia) the acidity is 0,13 pH but Laguna Caliente in Poás volcano (Costa Rica) sometimes is close to the nearly impossible 0 pH.
The unusual chemistry causes weird color of many crater lakes. These lakes often are light blue, green, white. Especially interesting are Kelimutu crater lakes (Indonesia) – three closely located lakes, each in its own color.
Under the sea there are even more unusual lakes (!) – such as Daikoku Sulfur Cauldron (Northern Mariana islands) which is a pool of liquid sulphur.
Some 7 – 12 volcanoes in the world contain lava lakes – basically lakes of molten stone. The largest and most impressive among them are lava lakes of Mount Nyiragongo (Congo DR) and Erta Ale“>Erta Ale (Ethiopia) as well as Halemaumau Crater in Kīlauea (Hawaiian Islands, United States).
Lakes in geothermal areas
There are numerous unusual lakes in the world’s geothermal areas. Similar to crater lakes these lakes have unusual chemistry and temperature but can be even more colorful – such as the gaudy lake of the Grand Prismatic Spring (United States) or Champagne Pool (New Zealand). These lakes can have high water temperature or could be even constantly boiling as Boiling Lake (Dominica).
Lakes in sinkholes
Sinkholes themselves are unusual and impressive landmarks but many sinkholes have lakes in them and these lakes almost always are unusual. Such unusual lakes are El Zacatón (Mexico) with floating limestone islands or Poza Seca (Mexico) which has covered itself with a limestone lid. Very weird are black holes in Bahamas, such as Black Hole of Andros which contains heated, acidic layer of bacteria.
Many lakes in sinkholes are just gorgeous – water here often is lucid and occasional rays of Sun light the lakes in blue color. Such beautiful lakes are some cenotes in Mexico, such as X’kekén Cenote.
Lakes with unusual ecosystems
Almost every unusual lake has unusual ecosystem as well. But some are truly weird, such as Jellyfish Lake (Palau) – small, unique lake with millions of jellyfish in it or Satonda Crater Lake (Indonesia) which in some aspects resembles Precambrian environments.
In the arid areas of the world lakes also have unusual chemistry and ecology thanks to the high rate of evaporation and lack of rain. Some such lakes have unusual colors such as the green Laguna Verde (Bolivia) or Lake Natron (Tanzania) which in some areas is bright red.
Sometimes such lakes are covered with a crust of salt, such as Lake Afrera (Ethiopia).
Lakes in Antarctica
Some very weird lakes are located in Antarctica. The extreme weather and often – long isolation under the sheet of ice – have created unique lakes, such as Lake Untersee which is supersaturated with oxygen or Lake Bonney which is saturated with nitrous oxide – "laughing gas".
Nearly all lakes have legends about them but some are just very unusual. Thus, there are many lakes with purported monsters living in them such as the famous Loch Ness (United Kingdom) or Lake Tele (Republic of the Congo).
Some rivers are very special. Thus, in Antarctica there is only one proper river – Onyx River which flows over extremely dry, lifeless plains.
Indecision Creek (United States, Alaska) is a very acidic stream with pH of 1.2 and smell of sulphur. There are some more hot rivers around the world in geothermal areas, some with acidic water.
Some rivers have unusual ecosystems such as the beautiful Caño Cristales (Colombia) which at certain times of the year are colored in bright red and yellow colors by specific water plants.
Some sea bays also are very unusual. There are sea bays with surreal, turquoise color caused by limestone dust – such as Milky Way (Palau) or Chalk Sound (Turks and Caicos).
There are some bays where the bioluminescence is observed more frequently – such as Rockbay in Jamaica or Bioluminescent Bay in Puerto Rico.
Wondermondo has the following articles about the lakes and streams:
Top 25 lakes and streams
One of the most active volcanos in the world, with a constant lava lake (sometimes two lakes) in the crater, known since 1906. None of the other known lava lakes in the world have such a long lifetime.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
One of the few volcanos in the world with a nearly permanent lava lake in it. Height of the mountain – 3,470 m. Depth of lava lake has reached up to 600 m. Eruptions produce very fluid lava of rare type. The speed of lava flows here can reach 100 km/h and the volcano is very steep.
Republic of Congo
Round freshwater lake deep in swampland and rainforest, possible impact crater. According to local stories in this lake and surrounding area lives mokèlé-mbèmbé – purported giant reptile. This remote area is very rich with rare species of plants and animals including a population of more than 120 thousand gorillas. Many other cryptids were reported, such as mahamba – giant crocodile.
One of the most saline lakes in the world, its surface is 155 m below sea level. World’s largest salt reserve, with an estimated 300 million tonnes of salt. The saline brine of the lake at certain lighting has an unusual, bright color. The lake is fed by subsurface geothermal springs.
Group of legendary, sacred, and very impressive caves with up to 172 meters deep lakes (Sleeping Pool). Extremely high transparency of water where clouds and birds flying over can be seen from 30 meters depth inside the cave lake.
Dragon’s Breath Cave
Unique cave with the largest cave lake in the world (except for subglacial lakes). This lake is located some 100 m below the surface, the area of this lake is some 2 ha and it most likely is very deep. Endemic species.
Well preserved impact crater made by some 30 – 50 meters large bolid some 220,000 years ago. Astrobleme is 1.13 km in diameter and 100 m deep, the lake on the bottom has been used by people for salt collection over the last 100,000 years.
Antarctica and Subantarctic islands
One of the few constant glowing lava lakes in the world. Here are found large anorthoclase crystals in the center of the caldera of the volcano.
System of three closely located crater lakes. Each of the lakes has a different, changing color – from bright red to green and blue.
Turquoise-colored, extremely acid lake with a diameter of 1 km. Acidity – 0.5 pH. Nearly pure deposits of sulfur are located in the caldera. The burning sulfuric gas creates a very impressive blue flame in the night.
Hinatuan Enchanted River
Unique monument of nature – deep trench coming from the sea and entering the jungle. It is filled with seawater and reportedly with large sea fish seen in it. The water in this lagoon is deep blue and lucid. Locals consider this place to be enchanted and guarded by superhuman beings.
Australia and Oceania
One of the most impressive and unusual hot springs in the world, 65 meters in diameter, up to 62 meters deep. Spring is filled with 73 °C hot water oversaturated with metalloids and gases, sedimenting bright orange sediments.
Unusual lake in flamboyant rose color, surrounded by lush green forest and the ocean nearby. The unusual color, most likely, is caused by algae Dunaliella salina but the search for the cause continues.
Albania, Republic of Macedonia
The deepest lake in the Balkans with unique fauna and flora – many species of fish, mollusks, and other organisms are found only in this lake. Most likely the life in this lake has developed for millions of years with limited contact to other aquatic ecosystems.
Unique karst field created by thermal acidic waters heated by volcanic heat. Contains the world’s deepest water-filled sinkhole, the 339 meters deep El Zacatón sinkhole with 319 meters deep lake, and floating islands. Poza Seca is one of the unique travertine capped sinkholes of Sistema Zacatón – here the formerly open sinkhole has sealed itself with a limestone lid. Most likely it hides unknown life forms, not investigated.
The second deepest water-filled sinkhole in the world. The total depth of the sinkhole is 339 m, the lake is 319 m deep. On the surface of the lake, there are floating several round travertine islands. Lake is formed by volcanically heated acidic groundwater.
Very active and unusual volcano (635 m) with several active craters. Santiago crater emits large amounts of sulfur dioxide that created acid rain and eliminated vegetation around the volcano. Masaya crater contains intermittent lava lakes – in 1670 in Nindiri crater it was up to 1 km large, by far the largest known lava lake.
Unique water-filled sinkhole with a ghostly layer of hydrogen sulfate at the depth of some 30 m and seawater below it.
300 m wide and up to 47 m deep round water filled sinkhole with a layer of violet jelly layer of bacteria at 18 meters depth. Microorganisms have heated up the water to 40°C.
Round, beautiful lake in the caldera of Mount Mazuma volcano. The caldera is 655 m deep and formed geologically recently: 7,700 years ago when the volcano collapsed. The lake is 594 m deep – the deepest in the United States.
Flooded fumarole, filled with bubbling greyish-blue water and enveloped in steam. The diameter of this lake is some 63 m. The temperature of the water is 82 – 100 C°. In the late 19th century in the center of the lake formed a geyser that was up to 18 m high. Second largest boiling lake in the world.
Lake with alkaline water and characteristic, eerie tufa towers. Lake has an unusual, very productive ecosystem that includes also the unique bacteria GFAJ-1 that uses arsenic in its cellular structure. Here live also other endemic species, e.g. Mono Lake brine shrimp (Artemia monica). Paoha island in the lake contains many hot springs and fumaroles.
A unique river. Its bottom is covered with the endemic Macarenia clavigera plants. From late July to November these plants turn bright red. Then this colorful river is one of the most spectacular sights in Colombia.
Bright red lake fed by hot springs, 40 – 50 °C warm, with travertine formations around the lake. Nearby also yellow and green lakes. Lakes are located at 3,700 m above sea level.
This is the first book to describe the ecology of high latitude lakes, rivers, and glacial environments in both the North and South polar regions. From the lake-rich floodplains of the Arctic to the deep, enigmatic waters of Lake Vostok, Antarctica, these regions contain some of the most extraordinary aquatic ecosystems on Earth.
Limnology is the study of the structural and functional interrelationships of organisms of inland waters as they are affected by their dynamic physical, chemical, and biotic environments. Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems, Third Edition, is a new edition of this established classic text. The coverage remains rigorous and uncompromising and has been thoroughly reviewed and updated with evolving recent research results and theoretical understanding.