Wondermondo 🢖 Categories of wonders 🢖 Geological wonders 🢖 Volcanoes
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What is included in this category?
This category includes most unusual and interesting volcanoes of the world.
What are volcanoes?
Over the last 10,000 years in some 1,500 places around the Earth through the crust of the planet has been emitted lava, ash, and gases from the mantle of Earth. Each of these places could be considered to be an active volcano. Every year some 50 – 70 volcanoes are erupting, at any moment there are some 20 – 30 eruptions ongoing.
Best known and visually most impressive are stratovolcanoes – tall and conical mountains with a vent that opens in the summit. But there are other types of volcanoes as well, such as shield volcanoes and fissure vents – linear rows of smaller volcanoes or even open fissures. Not always it is easy to decide whether the diverse closely located volcanic features are parts of a single volcano or separate volcanoes.
What defines "unusual volcanoes"?
The mission of Wondermondo is to describe all the unusual places ("wonders") around the world. Each of the 1,500 active volcanoes and also some of the inactive ones are such unusual places. But, as always in life, some are more unusual than others.
The most unusual volcanoes can have the following characteristics:
- Record size or other superlatives;
- Unusual volcanic and other geological processes;
- Unusual geochemistry and characteristics which are linked to it;
- Unusual shape.
The tallest active volcano on Earth (above sea level) is the Ojos del Salado (Chile), 6,891 m tall. It contains also the world’s highest-located lake at a height of 6,390 m.
The world’s tallest volcano as measured from its base is Mauna Kea (United States, Hawaii) which rises from the ocean floor 10,203 m tall. This is the tallest mountain in the world.
Chimborazo volcano (Ecuador) holds an unusual record – this 6,268 m tall mountain is the farthest point on the Earth’s surface from the center of Earth.
The deepest known volcano is located in Cayman Trough, Caribbean. These deep-sea vents are located at the depth of some 5,000 m.
World’s biggest volcano – Tamu Massif under the waves of north-west Pacific – falls outside the scope of Wondermondo as its area exceeds 500 km² multiple times – it is some 311,000 km² large!
The oldest still-active volcano in the world is the giant Mount Cameroon (Cameroon). It has managed to have the stamina (e.g. reservoir of magma under it) for the last 30 million years at least.
Only a few volcanoes in the world have lava lakes and the most persistent lava lake is in Erta Ale volcano (Ethiopia) – this volcano holds a lake of liquid stone since 1906 at least.
The largest intact volcanic caldera is Ngorongoro Crater (Tanzania) – an amazing structure with an area of 260 km² and surrounded by up to 610 m tall walls and steeps.
The largest lava lake was seen in Masaya Volcano (Nicaragua) in 1670 – it was approximately 1 km wide.
There are few volcanoes in the world which are constantly active – constantly erupting. This offers predictable and magnificent sights. Among the most active ones can be mentioned Etna and Stromboli (Italy) which are erupting almost constantly for millennia, Kīlauea (Hawaiian Islands), Mount Yasur (Vanuatu), Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion), and others.
In most cases volcanoes are erupting from a single vent – there is a mountain with the eruption at its summit. But there are times when Earth seems to open and from a long crack starts to flow lava. One such eruption took place in Iceland in 1783 – 1784, when simultaneously erupted a chain of 130 craters – Laki fissure vent.
Active volcanoes are dynamic and often – changing. Some of these changes and processes are very unusual and impressive. Thus, for example, there are volcanoes which are rising from the sea: there appears a new island – volcano… it is washed away by the ocean waves and rises again and then – again… Some examples are Home Reef (Tonga), and Kavachi (Solomon Islands). Often such submarine volcano manages to rise successfully and new island persists – such as Surtsey (Iceland) which rose from 1963 to 1967. Curtis Island (Kermadec Islands) has risen earlier and continues to rise quickly, with almost daily earthquakes. And there are also volcanoes that are rising and soon they might reach the surface of the ocean (Kick-’em-Jenny in Grenada).
A natural wonder, albeit often very unpleasant is volcanoes that suddenly rise from a flat field. Such recent surprises have been Parícutin (Mexico) and Shōwa-shinzan (Japan).
During the eruption one can witness liquid rocks – lava. But in very rare cases there form lava lakes which exist for a longer time. Currently, these volcanoes contain lava lakes:
- Erta Ale (Ethiopia);
- Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) – intermittent, has been up to 1 km wide in 1670;
- Mount Erebus (Antarctica);
- Mount Michael (South Sandwich Islands).
- Mount Nyiragongo (Congo DR) – at some moments this is the largest lava lake in the world;
- Mount Nyamuragira (Congo DR) – intermittent but with a possibility that it will become a permanent lake now;
- Villarrica volcano (Chile) – intermittent.
There existed or could exist some more lava lakes:
- Benbow Crater and Mbwelesu Crater (Vanuatu, Ambrym Island) – both were nearly permanent and spectacular until disappeared;
- Mawson Peak of Big Ben (Heard Islands);
- Halemaumau Crater with a lava lake, Kilauea (Hawaiian Islands), often also in the nearby Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater. In 2019 there is no lava lake in any of these craters;
- Mount Belinda (South Sandwich Islands);
Some volcanoes emit poisonous and also rammish gases which affect wide environs – this is a kind of frequent chemical attack. For example, Mount Asphyxia (South Sandwich Islands) frequently emits suffocating gases which together with the huge amount of penguin guano on the island can make the stay on Zavodovski Island unbearable. Large "field of acid" has been formed by Benbow and Marum volcanoes (Vanuatu), Masaya (Nicaragua), Poás volcano (Costa Rica).
Volcanoes exhibit interesting chemical properties rather frequently.
In rather many cases volcanic craters contain colourful, acid solutions. Such lakes of acid are found in the craters of Ebeko (Russia, Kuril Islands), Maly Semiachik (Russia, Kamchatka), and Mount Douglas (United States, Alaska). Nakadake Crater Lake (Japan) is almost pure acid, with pH ranging from 0.5 to 1.7, similar acidity is in Ijen Caldera (Indonesia) but Laguna Caliente in Poás volcano (Costa Rica) sometimes reaches even the nearly impossible 0.0 pH. As if this is not enough, phreatic eruptions may eject this acid up to 1 kilometer high.
These lakes may have bright, unusual colors. These colors change over time, turning from white into bright blue or green. Very unusual are Kelimutu crater lakes (Indonesia) – three closely located lakes, where each of which has a different color – from bright red to green and blue.
Even volcanic flames sometimes have unusual colors. Thus the burning sulphuric gases in Ijen Caldera (Indonesia) at the night have an impressive blue color.
Sometimes whole volcano consists of unusual substance. Such unique volcanoes are Ol Doinyo Lengai and Kerimasi in Tanzania – both are erupting very unusual natrocarbonatite lava which soon turns bright white as snow.
Below the waters of oceans are located very weird volcanoes. Thus Daikoku Sulphur Cauldron (Northern Mariana Islands) contains a unique pool of liquid sulfur, and NW Eifuku Champagne Vent (Northern Mariana Islands) emits almost pure liquid carbon dioxide.
Some volcanic formations have very unusual shape. For example, the Molokini crater (Hawaii) is just a perfect, green crescent rising from the blue ocean. Somewhat similar, but on the land and even more impressive is Fort Rock (United States, Oregon) which reminds ruins of a giant fortress. Suswa Volcano (Kenya) has a unique double crater that looks like a deep-pressed ring around its summit.
Many volcanoes are well known thanks to their perfect, symmetric shape. It is hard to say which one is the most symmetrical in the world but some of the most amazing ones are Mayon (Philippines), Mount Shishaldin (United States, Alaska) and the gorgeous Kronotsky (Russia, Kamchatka).
And many, many volcanoes are just beautiful in everything. Some are famous in the whole world (Mount Fuji in Japan), others are less known but not less gorgeous (Maelifell in Iceland).
Wondermondo has the following articles about volcanoes:
Top 25 volcanoes
The largest free-standing volcanic mass in the world. Also – the highest mountain in Africa, 5,895 m high. The volcano rises 4,877 m above the surrounding plain. Summit has a permanent glacier that is quickly disappearing. Mount Kilimanjaro includes several unique ecosystems, such as the highest cloud forest in Africa at 4,100 m height and stands of Dendrosenecio plants.
One of the most active volcanos in the world, with a constant lava lake (sometimes two lakes) in the crater, known since 1906. None of the other known lava lakes in the world have such a long lifetime.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
One of the few volcanos in the world with a nearly permanent lava lake in it. Height of the mountain – 3,470 m. The depth of the lava lake has reached up to 600 m. Eruptions produce very fluid lava of a rare type. The speed of lava flows here can reach 100 km/h and the volcano is very steep.
Canary Islands (Spain)
3 718 m high volcano. Around the summit of the volcano are numerous species of plants and animals that are found only here, such as Teide bugloss with up to 3 m tall, red inflorescences. Sacred mountain to Guanches, seen as a gate to hell.
Ol Doinyo Lengai
The only known carbonatite volcano in the world (except for the neighboring Kerimasi volcano). The volcano produces natrocarbonatite lava with nearly unique minerals – nyerereite and gregoryite. Lava flows at very low temperatures of 500 – 600 ° C. Carbonates react with the moisture of the atmosphere and quickly turn white, creating a unique volcanic landscape. Here on a steep cone has been observed the formation of a new, nearly unique lava cave with enormous stalactites made of fragile natrocarbonatite.
The largest volcanic caldera in the world, up to 610 m deep and 260 km² large. Area of an exceptional concentration of wild animals, with 25,000 large animals living in the crater.
Possibly the oldest still-active volcano in the world. It has been active for 30 million years at least. This enormous mountain rises 4 040 m from the ocean and is located over one of the largest known reservoirs of magma.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Africa’s most active volcano, 3,058 m high. The volcano has erupted 30 times since 1880 and produces the major part of sulfur dioxide pollution in the world. The volcano has created lava fields. An intense eruption took place also in 2010 and damaged the virgin rainforest. The volcano contains an intermittent lava lake that seems to become more stable and permanent.
Antarctica and Subantarctic islands
Mount Erebus – the southernmost active volcano
One of the few constantly glowing lava lakes in the world. Here are found large anorthoclase crystals in the center of the caldera of the volcano.
Symbol of Japan, the highest mountain in the country, 3,776 m high. This volcano has a nearly perfect symmetrical form and has provided inspiration for many works of art.
Kelimutu crater lakes
System of three closely located crater lakes. Each of the lakes has a different, changing color – from bright red to green and blue.
Taal Volcano and Taal Lake
400 m high, active volcano. An unusual feature is a fact that there is a lake on an island (Luzon), with the summit of the volcano as an island in this lake and a crater lake in the middle of this volcano with a small island in it. In Taal Lake lives the only freshwater sardine in the world, the only freshwater sea snake, and many other endemic species.
Turquoise-colored, extremely acid lake with a diameter of 1 km. Acidity – 0.5 pH. Nearly pure deposits of sulfur are located in the caldera. The burning sulfuric gas creates a very impressive blue flame in the night.
Unusual crater – up to 40 m tall and 160 m wide mound/ring of limestone blocks with a smaller mound inside. Most likely it was created by a gaseous eruption some centuries ago.
A very active volcano, 2,329 m high. Sacred place with an ancient tradition of offerings.
Australia and Oceania
Active volcano rising 321 m high from the sea as an island. One of the most accessible active marine volcanoes in the world. Fumaroles and boiling mud pools. The crater contains a light blue lake.
Volcano with the largest area in the world among the volcanoes that are above sea level. It rises 4 169 m above sea level and 9 170 m above its base.
Halemaumau Crater with lava lake, Kilauea
The most active volcano in the world could be Kilauea in Hawaii. The caldera of this volcano contains Halemaumau Crater, where until 2018 was a lava lake.
This volcanic island is very new: it rose from the ocean in 1963 – 1967. The island is pristine and serves as a natural laboratory where the colonization process of plant and animal life is researched. The area of the island is decreasing.
Very active, 3329 m tall volcano. The eruptions of this volcano have caused much damage.
Volcano on its own small island. It has been erupting nearly continuously over the last 2000 years.
Very active and unusual volcano (635 m) with several active craters. Santiago crater emits large amounts of sulfur dioxide that created acid rain and eliminated vegetation around the volcano. Masaya crater contains intermittent lava lakes – in 1670 in Nindiri crater it was up to 1 km large, by far the largest known lava lake.
This newly-born volcano appeared in a cornfield in 1943 and grew 336 m tall over one year, finally achieving a height of 424 m in 1952.
Poas Volcano and Laguna Caliente
Very active and unusual volcano with Laguna Caliente – a lake of extreme acidity reaching up to 0.0 pH. Frequent phreatic eruptions may eject this acid up to 1 kilometer high. Around the volcano, all the vegetation is stunted brown and black by the extremely acid clouds coming from this lake.
Citlaltépetl (Pico de Orizaba)
The most prominent mountain between Colombia and Yukon, a 5,636 m high stratovolcano. The 7th topographically most prominent mountain in the world. Contains permanent snow.
Volcanoes of the World
This impressive scientific resource presents up-to-date information on ten thousand years of volcanic activity on Earth. In the decade and a half since the previous edition was published, new studies have refined assessments of the ages of many volcanoes, and several thousand new eruptions have been documented. This edition updates the book’s key components: a directory of volcanoes active during the Holocene; a chronology of eruptions over the past ten thousand years; a gazetteer of volcano names, synonyms, and subsidiary features; an extensive list of references; and an introduction placing these data in context.
Exceptional nonfiction for children from two of the most trusted names in science education: Seymour Simon and the Smithsonian Institution.