The island of Ambrym is a volcano – the whole island has been shaped by the basaltic Ambrym volcano. Sometimes around 190 AD (or somewhat later… or before this… exact date is not known) a giant volcanic eruption created the present-day Ambrym caldera which is some 12 by 8 km large.
Later in this caldera rose several craters – two larger ones (Benbow and Marum) and three smaller ones.
Ambrym is one of the world’s most active volcanoes up to this day. It’s eruptions often are disastrous and local people from time to time (e.g. in December 1913) are forced to flee from the island.
Around the crater grows lush tropical forest with gorgeous orchids. Orchids grow in caldera as well. Closer to the craters, though, the land is empty due to frequent eruptions and acid emissions.
One should visit the volcano at certain times of the year with experienced local guides. There are cultural restrictions – many places are subject to seasonal taboo.
Acid rain from the craters of Ambrym is fairly common. Thus, in March 1979 from Benbow Crater rose a very destructive cloud of acid rain with sulfuric acid. Within 24 hours much of the vegetation in the south-west part of the island was lifeless, water supplies were contaminated. Some people got acid burns.
In November 2002 acid rain eliminated mango fields on the west coast. Frequent acid rains have caused a lack of suitable groundwater and locals are in a dire need of fresh water.
Lava lake in Benbow Crater
Over the last century lava lakes in the craters of Ambrym volcano have been observed several times. For several decades from the 1990ies until December 2018, there existed two lava lakes – one in Benbow Crater and one in a smaller side crater of Marum – Mbwelesu Crater.
In August 2018 there were even three lava lakes – a third one appeared in Niri Mbwelesu crater around January 2018.
The lava lake in Benbow crater could not be seen from the rim of crater and visitors had to descend in the crater and some dared to approach up to 100 m distance from the lake. But this trip hard was rewarding – the lava lake offered a view which is very, very rare on Earth.
The lava lake was rather small, some 40 by 30 m large. But it was in a constant movement with lava fountains and waves. Visitors stood at the crater and it was hard to leave…
After a powerful eruption and several earthquakes, all lava lakes of Ambrym volcano disappeared on December 16, 2018. We do not know if they will return…
Benbow Crater is included in the following article:
Benbow Crater on the map
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|Location, GPS coordinates:||16.2603 S 168.1042 E|
|Categories:||Volcanoes, Lakes and streams, Places with meteorological phenomena|
|Where is located?||Oceania, Melanesia, Vanuatu, central part of Ambrym Island, in Benbow Crater|
|Height:||around 1,120 m|
Video of Benbow Crater
Christopher Horsley, January 2019
This category includes the most unusual and interesting volcanoes of the world.
Over the last 10,000 years in some 1,500 places around the Earth through the crust of the planet was emitted lava, ash, and gases from the mantle of Earth. Each of these places is an active volcano. Every year some 50 – 70 volcanoes are erupting, at any moment there are some 20 – 30 eruptions on-going.
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