If compared to many similar monuments, Bedse Caves have little crowds and thus the enigmatic essence of this monument can be enjoyed in loneliness. Although the light reaches stupa in chaitya at any time of the day, it is advised to come and see caves earlier in the morning when the light reaches far inside the cave.

Prayer hall and monastery

Maharashtra is extremely rich with ancient rock-cut cave chambers, but especially interesting is the area along the old trade route from the Kalyan port at Arabian Sea to the impressive Nane Ghat mountain pass. Here are located three groups of exquisite cave temples containing important art values. While Karla Caves and Bhaja Caves are well known, the third – Bedse Caves are comparatively little known. Bedse Caves are rather hard to access, although the final part of path is easier – here are built fine stone masonry stairs.

Bedse Caves are built at the latest in the 1st century BC (around 60 BC) – thus they belong to the oldest ones in Maharashtra. If compared with the later cave temples, Bedse Caves are much simpler and smaller, with less furnishings.

Both main caves are facing eastwards. Nearby there is at least one more cave temple – incomplete separate cell.

Cap of the column in Bedse Caves, India
Cap of the column in Bedse Caves / , Flickr / CC BY 2.0

Most interesting cave is chaitya (prayer hall) with exquisite stupa in it – almost reaching the ceiling. Both sides of the main hall are flanked by octagonal columns. Five columns are adorned with simple ornaments. Several ancient inscriptions are left by the benefactors of caves. Entrance in the cave is adorned with two round pillars and two semi-columns, each of them has beautiful sculptural groups on the cap – humans or deities riding animals – e.g. horse, bull, elephant. The vaulted ceiling of chaitya is simple and bare unlike to later temples.

The other large cave chamber is vihara – monastery – with nine smaller cells for early Buddhist monks – Bhiku. Monks stayed here mostly during the monsoon – for some 4 months every year. Thus caves got their earlier name – Vasha Viharas – rain caves.

It is believed that monks (nuns!) here wrote the famous "Therigatha" – famous poetic scripture of religious content.

Below the caves there are located few spring-water tanks – serving as coolers for cave surroundings as well.

Bedse Caves, plan
Bedse Caves, plan / Plan by J.Burgess, 1880


Rather little is known about the history of this ancient temple and this blank spot is readily filled with diverse legends.

One legend tells that caves have been made when the mighty emperor Ashoka left his empire and went in for Buddhism. He ordered the creation of several prayer and meditation places for Buddhist monks and Bedse was one of such places.

Stories tell that traders in these caves left their valuables while away. Most likely these caves were used also as guesthouses for travelers.

One of the recent stories tell that British officers enjoyed Bedse Caves that much that they became a rather famous destination. To please the officers’ local authorities ordered workers to maintain caves – to clean and paint them as if these were new structures. These activities continued up to 1861. In some respects, this has helped to maintain sculptures in good condition but from the other side – we do not know what ancient art values were lost under the paint layers. Locals tell that in this way there were removed remnants of ancient plaster with traces of murals.


  1. Bedse Leni, Pune Heritage. Accessed on April 11, 2010.
  2. Karla, Bhaje, and Bedse caves, posted by Rahul. Accessed on April 11, 2010.
  3. Description of Bedsa, Flickr, Meghana Kulkarni. Accessed on April 12, 2010.
Bedse Caves on the map
[travelers-map height=320px this_post=true init_maxzoom=9]
Location, GPS coordinates: 18.7213 N 73.5351 E
Categories: Buddhist shrines, Rock cut temples and monasteries
Values: Art, Architecture, History, Archaeology
Rating: 3 out of 10 stars
Where is located? Asia, India, Maharashtra, Pune district, Maval tehsil
Alternate transcriptions: Bedsa Caves, Bedse Leni, Varsha Viharas (rain caves)
Age: the 1st century BC
Religion: Buddhism

Video of Bedse Caves

Ashish Dani, February 2011

Landmarks of India

Key Gompa, India
Key Gompa / , Flickr / CC BY 2.0

India is seventh largest country of world by area, and, naturally such a large area contains huge amount of exciting attractions…

Wondermondo considers that India is the second richest centre of architectural heritage in the world after Europe and maybe no single country of the world can match it in this respect.

Buddhist shrines

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Stupas of Borobudur / , Flickr / CC BY 2.0

Buddhism is one of the world religions and at the same time is a spiritual philosophy with diverse traditions, beliefs and practices. There exists rich tradition of architecture expressed in Buddhist temples and monasteries.

Recommended books

Rock Cut Temples of Western India

Illustrations Of The Rock-cut Temples Of India

This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923.

We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide.

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