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Bhaja Caves

Entrance in chaityagriha, Bhaja Caves
Entrance in chaityagriha, Bhaja Caves / Soham Banerjee, Flickr

WorldBlue  In short

Significant monument of art, architecture, and history is a group of exquisite rock-cut chambers at the valley of Indrayani River – Bhaja Caves. These 22 rock-cut caves have been created approximately 2,200 years ago, sometimes around 200 BC.

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GPS coordinates
18.7293 N 73.4811 E
Location, address
Asia, India, Maharashtra, 8.4 km east from Lonavala
Buddhist shrines, Rock cut temples and monasteries, Petroglyphs and rock art
Alternate names
Bhaje Caves
the 2nd century BC

Map of the site

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WorldYellow In detail

There were created several groups of stylistically similar, important early Buddhist rock-cut temples along the ancient trade route from Arabian Sea to Deccan region – Karla Caves, Bedse Caves and also the Bhaja Caves.

Bhaja Caves, plan of chaitya griha and nearby vihara
Bhaja Caves, plan of chaitya griha and nearby vihara / J.Burgess, 1880

Bhaja caves are cut in steep cliff face 120 m above the surrounding plain, all looking to the west.

Bhaja Caves are famed due to their ornate facades. It is believed that this ancient architecture is influenced by even older cave temples – Barabar Caves. Many elements hint that stone cutters copied the elements of ancient wooden architecture.

Stone carvings in Bhaja caves are not very deep, the style is similar to one of the molded terracottas. Sculptures in Bhaja have elaborate headdresses, garlands, and jewelry. It is possible that initially these sculptures were covered with plaster and painted in bright colors.

As is characteristic of early Buddhism, the religious art of caves is characterized by a symbolic representation of Buddha. Sculptures from later times, created after the 4th century AD though present Buddha in his physical forms as well – thus the largest shrine contains paintings of Buddha.

The chaityagriha

Stupa in chaityagriha, Bhaja Caves
Stupa in chaityagriha / Soham Banerjee, Flickr

The most impressive is Cave No 12 – a shrine, chaitya. The entrance in this temple belongs to the most photographed monuments in the region – the sight of this enormous, ornate horseshoe arch has no look-alikes. This is also the earliest known large chaitya – chaityagriha (chaityagrha) – in Indian rock-cut caves, although its architecture shows that there existed comparable wooden buildings.

Entrance in this cave temple is completely open now – but in earlier times there was a wooden facade below the arch. The facade imitates fine woodwork and is adorned with human figures leaning over balconies creating an impression of the abundance of life.

The hall behind the facade is roughly 17 m x 8 m large (diverse sources show slightly different values), up to 8.8 m high. 27 octagonal pillars divide it into aisles and allow circumabulatory passage around the stupa. These pillars lean inwards thus imitating wooden structures.

Group of stupas, Bhaja Caves
Group of stupas / Soham Banerjee, Flickr

On the top there were added wooden ribs further imitating a freestanding wooden building – these 2,200 years old wooden details are the oldest wooden structural elements here. Wooden beams contain inscriptions left by the benefactors of the temple.

Chaitya contains stupa at its far end with a diameter of 3.45 m, with a hole in the top for a wooden umbrella.

Other caves

View from Bhaja Caves
View from Bhaja Caves / Soham Banerjee, Flickr

Most of the caves in Bhaja are viharas – ancient Buddhist monasteries. Seven caves contain inscriptions informing about their benefactors, such as an inscription left by Maharathi Kosikiputi Vihnudata in the 2nd century AD.

An interesting and somewhat mysterious monument is an irregular excavation some 50 meters from the great chaitya. It contains a group of rock-cut stupas. 5 of these stupas are located inside a rock-cut chamber and 9 – are outside. It is identified as a cemetery. Some stupas are inscribed with the names of sthaviras – early orthodox Buddhists.

One of the last caves to the south, vihara (Cave No. 18.) contains a rectangular hall with a front pillared verandah. This vihara contains two cells – one at the back and one – on the right side. Pillars have a square base and top and octagonal middle part.

Relief at the entrance of cave No. 18, Bhaja Caves
Relief at the entrance of cave No. 18 / Henry Cousens, the 1880s

The verandah of cave No.18. contains some of the most interesting sculptural groups in Bhaja, such as:

  • A royal person with two woman attendants, driving a chariot by four horses, trampling some demonish figure. Some consider that the royal figure is Sun god Surya vanquishing the demon of darkness – then it is the oldest depiction of this deity.
  • A deity – identified as Indra – driving an elephant with attendants carrying a banner and spear. Also, this could be the oldest known depiction of Indra.

Additional beauty to this area is added by a small waterfall with a pool below it. It is located south of the caves and has water during the monsoon period.



  1. Bhaja Caves, Bhaja. Archaeological Survey of India. Was accessed on April 10, 2010, now not active.
  2. Benoy K. Behl., Grandeur of caves. Frontline, Vol 24, Sep.22 – Oct.05, 2005. Accessed on July 11, 2018.
  3. Bhaja Caves. Accessed on April 10, 2010.

Bhaja Caves are included in the following lists:

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Entrance in chaityagriha, Bhaja Caves / Soham Banerjee, Flickr

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Illustrations Of The Rock-cut Temples Of India

This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923.

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