Cenote Azufrosa and La Cristalina, Sistema Zacaton
This unusual system of geological features consists of Cenote Azufrosa – large sinkhole with double bottom and La Cristalina – cave with a spring. These natural wonders belong to the unique karst system of Sistema Zacatón.
Map of the site
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Sistema Zacatón is an area with incredible characteristics unparalleled in the world. In total area contains some 20 unusual features – sinkholes, caves, springs created by deep groundwater heated by volcanic processes. Karstification processes here continue today as well – acidic groundwater continues to strip away the limestone and deposits it in unusual travertine formations.
Cenote Azufrosa at the first moment seems to be just a shallow pool of light blue-colored water. Water in this pool though is highly sulfurous, with the characteristic odor of rotten eggs. Sulfur here precipitates and floats on the surface of the water. The water of this lake discolors and tarnishes metals.
Geophysical research shows that the bottom of this pool is far from usual- it is a travertine lid with a deep, isolated waterbody below it.
At the southern rim of this cenote is located La Cristalina – unusual cave with deep blue water in it. This enormous spring has been dived up to 50 m depth in 1990. Sometimes it is considered to be a discharge of the nearby Las Quarteles caves.
Temperature of water in the spring is 30° C.
- Marcus Gary, Sistema Zacatón, research homepage. Accessed in the 23rd June 2010
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This book illustrates the diversity of hypogene speleogenetic processes and void-conduit patterns depending on variations of the geological environments by presenting regional and cave-specific case studies. The cases include both well-known and newly recognized hypogene karst regions and caves of the world. They all focus on geological, hydrogeological, geodynamical, and evolutionary contexts of hypogene speleogenesis.
The Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science contains 350 alphabetically arranged entries. The topics include cave and karst geoscience, cave archaeology and human use of caves, art in caves, hydrology and groundwater, cave and karst history, and conservation and management. The Encyclopedia is extensively illustrated with photographs, maps, diagrams, and tables, and has thematic content lists and a comprehensive index to facilitate searching and browsing.